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Author's profile photo Andrea Schlotthauer

ABAP CDS Cheat Sheet: Amounts and Quantities in ABAP CDS

In ABAP CDS, a special handling for amounts and quantities is implemented. If differs from DDIC amount and quantity handling and it has recently been overhauled. Read this blog post and learn about ABAP CDS amount and quantity fields, conversion functions, and handling of amounts and quantities in expressions.

Contents:

  • CDS Amount Field
  • CDS Quantity Field
  • CDS Calculated Quantity with Calculated Unit
  • Unit and Currency Conversion Functions
  • Amounts and Quantities in Expressions
    • Amounts and quantities in arithmetic expressions
    • Amounts and quantities in aggregate functions
    • Amounts and quantities in simple and complex case expressions
    • Amounts and quantities in comparisons
    • Amounts and quantities in UNION views and INTERSECT views

CDS Amount Field

  • Field that stores an amount in a specific currency.
  • Possible data types: CURR, DECFLOAT34, DEC, and FLTP.
  • Reference to a currency key using the annotation @Semantics.amount.currencyCode is mandatory.
  • A currency key must have data type CUKY and it can contain a currency ID from the DDIC database table TCURC.

Further details: ABAP CDS – Amount Fields on SAP Help Portal.

CDS Quantity Field

  • Field that stores a quantity in a specific unit.
  • Possible data types: QUAN, DECFLOAT16, DECFLOAT34, DEC, FLTP, INT1, INT2, or INT4.
  • Reference to a unit of measurement key using the annotation @Semantics.quantity.unitOfMeasure is mandatory.
  • A unit of measurement key must have data type UNIT and can contain a unit ID from the DDIC database table T006.

Further details: ABAP CDS – Quantity Fields on SAP Help Portal.

CDS Calculated Quantity with Calculated Unit

This is a new feature that was first released with kernel release 7.84, SAP BTP ABAP Environment 2105, ABAP release 7.56

  • A calculated quantity is a field that stores a quantity in a self-defined unit.
  • It is always the result of a calculation using amounts and quantities.
  • A calculated quantity always has data type DECFLOAT34.
  • A reference to a calculated unit using the annotation @Semantics.quantity.unitOfMeasure: ‘calculatedUnit’ is mandatory.
  • A calculated unit has data type CHAR and specifies a self-defined unit, such as €/m2 (cost per square meter of an apartment, for example).

Further details:

Example

Arithmetic expression Result
770 € (Amount) / 100m² (Quantity) 7,70€/m² (Calculated Quantity)

The arithmetic expression 770€ / 100 mcalculates cost per square meter. It divides an amount by a quantity. The result of this calculation is a calculated quantity that has calculated unit reference assigned. This calculated unit is not registered in the unit check table T006.

Example

In the following CDS view entity, the field rent_per_size divides the amount of the rent for an apartment by the apartment size. The result is the cost per square meter.

  • Field rent_decfloat34 has data type DECFLOAT34 and a currency key reference.
  • Field apartment_size has data type QUAN(10,2) and a unit key reference.
  • The calculated unit is defined by means of a concatenation of a currency code, a forward slash, and the apartment unit. The resulting calculated unit is EUR/MTK, MTK being the unit ID for square meter.
@AccessControl.authorizationCheck: #NOT_ALLOWED 
@EndUserText.label: 'CDS view entity, calculated quantity' 

define view entity DEMO_CDS_CALCULATED_QUANTITY 
  as select from demo_rent 
{ 
  key apartment_id                     as ApartmentId, 
      apartment_size                   as ApartmentSize, 
      apartment_unit                   as ApartmentUnit, 
      currency                         as Currency, 
       
      // currency field and unit field in arith expression 
      @Semantics.quantity.unitOfMeasure: 'calculatedUnit' 
      rent_decfloat34 / apartment_size as rent_per_size, 
      concat( concat(currency, '/' ), apartment_unit )  
                                       as calculatedUnit 
} 

If data is inserted into the underlying database talbe demo_rent, the data preview might look as follows:

Unit and Currency Conversion Functions

Function Effect
UNIT_CONVERSION( quantity              => arg1,
source_unit       => arg2,
target_unit        => arg3[,
client                  => arg4][,
error_handling => arg5])

Performs a unit conversion for arg1.

Has been available “forever”, i.e. since ABAP release 7.40.

CURRENCY_CONVERSION(
  amount                        => arg1,
  source_currency        => arg2,
  target_currency         => arg3,
  exchange_rate_date => arg4[,
  exchange_rate_type => arg5][,
  client                            => arg6][,
  round                           => arg7][,
  decimal_shift              => arg8][,
  decimal_shift_back   => arg9][,
  error_handling           => arg10])

Performs a currency conversion for arg1.

Has been available “forever”, i.e. since ABAP release 7.40.

GET_NUMERIC_VALUE( arg )

Returns the numeric value of a currency or quantity field without its currency or unit key.

Available since kernel release 7.83, SAP BTP ABAP Environment 2102, ABAP release 7.56.

CURR_TO_DECFLOAT_AMOUNT( arg )

Converts a currency field of data type CURR into a currency field of data type DECFLOAT34.

Available since kernel release 7.83, SAP BTP ABAP Environment 2102, ABAP release 7.56.

Note: DECIMAL_SHIFT is available in the obsolete CDS DDIC-based views. It is not available in the “new world” of CDS view entities.

Further info on SAP Help Portal, Unit and Currency Conversion Functions

Example

The following CDS view entity applies the function GET_NUMERIC_VALUE to calculate the number of bookings. It divides the total value of current bookings (field paymentsum) by the price of a flight (field price). This would not be possible without the function GET_NUMERIC_VALUE, since elements of data type CURR are not allowed in arithmetic expressions.

Details on the elements:

  • paymentsum has data type CURR, a reference annotation that assigns a currency key, and it contains the total value of current bookings.
  • price has data type CURR, a reference annotation that assigns a currency key, and it contains the price of a flight.
  • number_of_bookings has data type DECFLOAT34 and it has no currency key assigned.
AccessControl.authorizationCheck: #NOT_REQUIRED 
@EndUserText.label: 'CDS view entity, GET_NUMERIC_VALUE' 
@Metadata.ignorePropagatedAnnotations: true 

define view entity DEMO_CDS_GET_NUMERIC_VALUE 
  as select from sflight 
{ 
  key carrid, 
  key connid, 
  key fldate, 
      @Semantics.amount.currencyCode: 'currency' 
      price, 
      currency, 
      @Semantics.amount.currencyCode: 'currency' 
      paymentsum, 
      GET_NUMERIC_VALUE( paymentsum ) 
        / GET_NUMERIC_VALUE( price ) as number_of_bookings 
} 

Amounts and Quantities in Expressions

In the “new world” of CDS view entities, amounts and quantities are considered in expressions, union views, and intersect views. Special rules apply how amounts and quantities can be combined:

  • Amounts and quantities in arithmetic expressions
  • Amounts and quantities in aggregate functions
  • Amounts and quantities in simple and complex case expressions
  • Amounts and quantities in comparisons
  • Amounts and quantities in UNION and INTERSECT views

Note: Cast expressions do not handle amounts. Only the target type CURR requires a reference to a currency key.

Amounts and quantities in arithmetic expressions

Release info: available since kernel release 7.84, SAP BTP ABAP Environment 2105, ABAP release  7.56

operand / operator / * +, –
amount, amount calculated quantity calculated quantity amount
quantity, quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity quantity
calculated quantity, amount calculated quantity calculated quantity amount
amount, quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity
calculated quantity, number calculated quantity calculated quantity
calculated quantity, quantity, calculated quantity calculated quantity quantity
calculated quantity, calculated quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity
amount, number amount amount
number, amount calculated quantity amount
quantity, number quantity quantity
number, quantity calculated quantity quantity

Further details: Amounts and Quantities in Arithmetic Expressions on SAP Help Portal

Amounts and quantities in aggregate functions

Release info: available since kernel release 7.84, SAP BTP ABAP Environment 2105, ABAP release 7.56

If the operand of an aggregate function is a CDS amount field, a CDS quantity field, or a CDS calculated quantity, the result type might require a reference annotation as well. The following table shows the result type depending on the operand type of all available aggregate functions.

Aggregate Function Type of Operand Result Type
MAX, MIN, SUM, AVG amount amount
MAX, MIN, SUM, AVG quantity quantity
MAX, MIN, SUM, AVG calculated quantity calculated quantity
COUNT amount, quantity, calculated quantity number of type INT4

Further details: Amounts and Quantities in Aggregate Expressions on SAP Help Portal.

Amounts and quantities in simple and complex case expressions

Release info: available since kernel release 7.84, SAP BTP ABAP Environment 2105, ABAP release 7.56

The result data type of a case expression (simple and complex) is determined by all THEN branches and the ELSE branch. If the result data type is a CDS amount field, a CDS quantity field, or a CDS calculated quantity, a reference annotation must be assigned. The following table shows how the result data type is calculated if one or more of the operands are amount and/or quantity fields.

Operand1 / Operand2 Amount Quantity Calculated Quantity Number
Amount amount calculated quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity
Quantity calculated quantity quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity
Calculated Quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity
Number calculated quantity calculated quantity calculated quantity number

Further details on SAP Help Portal:

Example

The example shows a CDS view entity with two complex case distinctions using amount and quantity fields.

@AccessControl.authorizationCheck: #NOT_REQUIRED 

define view entity DEMO_CDS_COMPLEX_CASE_1 
  as select from DEMO_CDS_CALC_QUANTITY_BASE 
{ 
  key Id, 

      //amounts and calculated quantities are compatible, 
      //result is a calculated quantity 

      @Semantics.quantity.unitOfMeasure: 'Calcunit' 
      case 
      when Char1 = abap.char'A' 
      then Dec10                //cuky reference -> amount field 
      when Char1 = abap.char'B' 
      then 100 / Dec10          //calculated quantity 
      else 0 
      end                                   as calcQuan, 
      Cuky, 
      concat( concat( Cuky , '/' ), Unit2 ) as calcUnit, 


      //CURR requires conversion to DECFLOAT34 

      @Semantics.amount.currencyCode : 'cuky' 
      case when Char1 = abap.char'A' 
      then CURR_TO_DECFLOAT_AMOUNT( Curr102 ) 
      else Dec10                //cuky reference 
      end                                   as CurrConv 
} 

Amounts and quantities in comparisons

Release info: available since kernel release 7.87, probably included in the next big on-prem shipment.

If one of the operands of a comparison is a CDS amount field, a CDS quantity field, or a CDS calculated quantity, special rules apply:

  • Both operands must have the same reference type. Both must be either amounts, or quantities, or calculated quantities. Comparing operands with references of different types (currency key, unit key, or calculated unit) results in a syntax check warning.
  • An operand of type CURR can only be compared with another operand of type CURR. The number of decimal places of both operands must match exactly.

The following table shows the possible combinations of operands in comparisons. Number refers to an operand of a numeric data type without reference annotation that turns it into an amount or quantity field.

Further details: Comparisons with Amounts and Quantities  on SAP Help Portal.

Amounts and quantities in UNION views and INTERSECT views

In UNION views and INTERSECT views, the data types of elements of different branches must match. For CDS amount fields, CDS quantity fields, and CDS calculated quantities, this implies:

  • Calculated quantity fields can be merged only with other calculated quantity fields.
  • Amount fields and quantity fields can be merged with each other, as long as the data types match.
  • For amount fields of type CURR, the number of decimal places must match exactly in all UNION branches.
  • Elements of data type CURR are incompatible to any other data type. The function CURR_TO_DECFLOAT_AMOUNT can be used to convert an amount field of data type CURR into an amount field of data type DECFLOAT34.

Questions, comments, or further details required? Use the Comments section below. Discussions are welcome.

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      5 Comments
      You must be Logged on to comment or reply to a post.
      Author's profile photo Shai Sinai
      Shai Sinai

      Thanks for the detailed overview.

       

      What would be the result of GET_NUMERIC_VALUE ( 60.00 JPY )?

      (6000 JPY in external format)

      Author's profile photo Andrea Schlotthauer
      Andrea Schlotthauer
      Blog Post Author

      Hi,

      the value stays exactly the same.

      The function removes the reference to a currency key and it converts the data type to DECFLOAT34. If arg has data type CURR, an implicit decimal shift takes place.

      Purpose: strict checks have been implemented for calculations with amounts in expressions and with this function, some limitations can be circumvented.

      Docu on SAP Help Portal.

      Does that answer your question? Any further issues?

      Author's profile photo Shai Sinai
      Shai Sinai

      Almost.

      The statement "If arg has data type CURR, an implicit decimal shift takes place." is quite amorphic.

      I brought JPY as an example. The (external) value of 6000 JPY is internally stored in ABAP as 60.00 JPY. What would be the result of GET_NUMERIC_VALUE? 6000 or 60.00?

      Author's profile photo Andrea Schlotthauer
      Andrea Schlotthauer
      Blog Post Author

      It depends how the value 60.00 JPY is stored in your system:

      • If the value is stored as DEC(x,2), the value remains 60.00. No decimal shift takes place.
      • If the value is stored in a CURR(x,2) column, an implicit DECIMAL_SHIFT statement is generated.

      The decimal shift calculates the difference between the number of decimal places of the currency and the number of decimal places of the column.

      JPY does not have any decimal places. Your column apparently has two decimal places.

      2 - 0 = 2. The comma is shifted two places to the right. In other words, the value is multiplied by 100. The result of GET_NUMERIC_VALUE is 6000.

       

      Author's profile photo Shai Sinai
      Shai Sinai

      Thanks. That answers my question.