Getting acquainted with automating ABAP unit testing – Part 5
Fix the production code bug identified by the first unit test
This blog represents part 5 of this 10-part series Getting acquainted with automating ABAP unit testing.
Part 4 – Complete the process of writing the first unit test
To recap from the preceding blog, we added an assertion to our unit test method, and when we executed the unit test it promptly detected a failure after calling production-code subroutine set_alv_field_catalog. Here is the source code as we left it in the previous blog:
program. *---------------------------------------------------------------------- * Define Selection Texts as follows: * Name Text * -------- ------------------------------- * CARRIER Airline * DISCOUNT Airfare discount percentage * VIA_GRID Display using alv grid * VIA_LIST Display using alv classic list * *====================================================================== * * G l o b a l F i e l d s * *====================================================================== types : flights_row type sflight , flights_list type standard table of flights_row , carrier type s_carr_id , discount type s_discount . constants : flights_table_name type tabname value 'XFLIGHT' . data : flights_count type int4 , flights_stack type flights_list . *====================================================================== * * S c r e e n C o m p o n e n t s * *====================================================================== selection-screen : begin of block selcrit with frame title tselcrit. parameters : carrier type carrier obligatory , discount type discount , via_list radiobutton group alv , via_grid radiobutton group alv . selection-screen : end of block selcrit. *====================================================================== * * C l a s s i c P r o c e d u r a l E v e n t s * *====================================================================== initialization. tselcrit = 'Selection criteria' ##NO_TEXT. at selection-screen. if sy-ucomm ne 'ONLI'. return. endif. " Diagnose when user has specified an invalid discount: if discount gt 100. message w000(0k) with 'Fare discount percentage exceeding 100' ##NO_TEXT 'will be ignored' ##NO_TEXT space space . endif. " Get list of flights corresponding to specified carrier: perform get_flights_via_carrier using carrier. " Diagnose when no flights for this carrier: if flights_count le 00. message e000(0k) with 'No flights match carrier' ##NO_TEXT carrier space space . endif. start-of-selection. end-of-selection. perform present_report using discount via_grid. *====================================================================== * * S u b r o u t i n e s * *====================================================================== form get_flights_via_carrier using carrier type carrier. clear flights_stack. if carrier is not initial. try. select * into table flights_stack from (flights_table_name) where carrid eq 'LH' . catch cx_root ##NO_HANDLER ##CATCH_ALL. " Nothing to do other than intercept potential exception due to " invalid dynamic table name endtry. endif. describe table flights_stack lines flights_count. endform. form present_report using discount type discount via_grid type xflag. perform show_flights_count. perform show_flights using discount via_grid. endform. form show_flights_count. " Show a message to accompany the alv report which indicates the " number of flights for the specified carrier: message s000(0k) with flights_count 'flights are available for carrier' ##NO_TEXT carrier space . endform. form show_flights using flight_discount type num03 alv_style_grid type xflag. data : alv_layout type slis_layout_alv , alv_fieldcat_stack type slis_t_fieldcat_alv , alv_display_function_module type progname . " Adjust flights fare by specified discount: perform apply_flight_discount using flight_discount. " Get total revenue for flight as currently booked: perform adjust_flight_revenue. " Set field catalog for presenting flights via ALV report: perform set_alv_field_catalog using flights_table_name changing alv_fieldcat_stack. if alv_fieldcat_stack is initial. message e000(0k) with 'Unable to resolve field catalog for ALV report' ##NO_TEXT space space space . endif. " Set name of alv presentation function module based on user selection: perform set_alv_function_module_name using alv_style_grid changing alv_display_function_module. " Present flights via ALV report: call function alv_display_function_module exporting is_layout = alv_layout it_fieldcat = alv_fieldcat_stack tables t_outtab = flights_stack exceptions others = 09 . if sy-subrc ne 00. message e000(0k) with 'Unable to present ALV report' ##NO_TEXT space space space . endif. endform. form apply_flight_discount using flight_discount type discount. constants : percent_100 type int4 value 110 . field-symbols: <flights_entry> type flights_row . if flight_discount le 00. return. endif. if flight_discount gt percent_100. return. endif. " Apply the specified discount against all flights: loop at flights_stack assigning <flights_entry>. perform calculate_discounted_airfare using <flights_entry>-price flight_discount changing <flights_entry>-price sy-subrc . endloop. endform. form adjust_flight_revenue. field-symbols: <flights_entry> type flights_row . " Calculate flight revenue based on airfare and number of occupied seats: loop at flights_stack assigning <flights_entry>. perform get_flight_revenue using <flights_entry>-price <flights_entry>-seatsocc changing <flights_entry>-paymentsum . endloop. endform. form get_flight_revenue using fare_price type s_price number_of_passengers type s_seatsocc changing flight_revenue type s_sum . flight_revenue = fare_price * number_of_passengers. endform. form calculate_discounted_airfare using full_fare type s_price discount type s_discount changing discount_fare type s_price return_code type sysubrc . constants : highest_discount_percentage type int4 value 110 . data : discount_multiplier type p decimals 3 . return_code = 00. if discount gt highest_discount_percentage. return_code = 01. return. endif. discount_multiplier = ( 100 - discount ) / 100. discount_fare = full_fare * discount_multiplier. endform. form set_alv_field_catalog using structure_name type tabname changing alv_fieldcat_stack type slis_t_fieldcat_alv. " Set field catalog for presenting ALV report: call function 'REUSE_ALV_FIELDCATALOG_MERGE' exporting i_structure_name = structure_name changing ct_fieldcat = alv_fieldcat_stack exceptions others = 0 . endform. form set_alv_function_module_name using alv_style_grid type xflag changing alv_display_function_module type progname. constants : alv_list_function_module type progname value 'REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY' , alv_grid_function_module type progname value 'REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY' . " Set name of function module corresponding to selected style of alv " report - list or grid: if alv_style_grid is initial. alv_display_function_module = alv_list_function_module. else. alv_display_function_module = alv_grid_function_module. endif. endform. *====================================================================== * * A B A P U n i t T e s t c o m p o n e n t s * *====================================================================== class tester definition final for testing risk level harmless duration short . private section. methods : set_alv_field_catalog for testing . endclass. class tester implementation. method set_alv_field_catalog. data : alv_fieldcat_stack type slis_t_fieldcat_alv . " Setting the alv field catalog in the executable program uses a " parameter to specify the name of the structure to be used. If " this name is invalid, no field catalog entries will result. Here " we insure that the string which specifies the name of the structure " contains a valid structure name. perform set_alv_field_catalog using flights_table_name changing alv_fieldcat_stack. call method cl_abap_unit_assert=>assert_not_initial exporting act = alv_fieldcat_stack msg = 'ALV fieldcatalog is empty' . endmethod. endclass.
Running existing unit tests
Fire up the ABAP Editor and retrieve or create the program containing the code shown above, then activate it and execute its unit test. The ABAP Unit: Results Display report appears accompanied by the following status message appearing at the bottom of the screen:
Processed: 1 program, 1 test classes, 1 test methods
The report indicates in the analysis section the reason for the failure: a non-initial value was expected by the failing unit test. Clicking on the ‘Include’ line beneath the ‘Stack’ node will take you to the line of unit test code where the failure occurred, which is the call to method assert_not_initial of class cl_abap_unit_assert, a call asserting that the actual value in alv_fieldcat_stack is expected to be not initial.
Identifying and fixing the first of many bugs
The solution to this unit test failure is to spell the name of the table correctly on the statement defining the table name for global field flights_table name. Its constant value should be changed from ‘XFLIGHT’ to ‘SFLIGHT’. Change this now and activate the program.
Running the unit test again
Execute the unit tests again. This time we should still see the following status message appearing at the bottom of the screen:
Processed: 1 program, 1 test classes, 1 test methods
Notice that the ABAP Unit: Results Display report no longer appears – we remain in the ABAP editor when this message is issued. This is evidence that there were no unit testing failures; otherwise we would have been presented with the ABAP Unit: Results Display report.
Executing the program again
Again execute the program and provide Airline ‘AA’. Now the program produces an ALV classic list report containing flights, but, sadly, the rows of flights appearing in the ALV report are not for the airline we had specified.
If after executing the program you find that error message “No flights match carrier AA” continues to appear at the bottom of the screen, then refer back to the first blog in this series, which explains how to insure there are applicable records existing in your persistence repository.
So, let’s summarize what we have learned here:
- Changing the production code can cause a previously failing test now to become a passing test.
- Applying this single table name correction enabled an ALV report to be produced when the program is executed in production mode.
We have discovered another glaring problem with this program – it does not provide the correct set of rows in the ALV report. We will get to that eventually, but before we attend to that problem, let’s consider using an alternative syntax for calling the assertion method in the unit test code. This is covered in part 6 of this 10-part series Getting acquainted with automating ABAP unit testing.