In my previous blog (Step-By-Step to run a simple ‘Procure to Pay’ process), I introduced the simple ‘Procure to Pay’ process and ‘Account Payable’ is part of the process. In this blog post, I would reuse the example in that blog post to introduce the ‘Banking’ function.
Before reading this blog post, let’s quickly go over the example scenario in the previous blog post.
There is a food trading company and their customer just called them to buy 50 bags of rice. But the trading company finds that they do not have enough stock. So they decide to purchase 100 bags of rice from their vendor and will pay the money to the vendor after they receive the goods.
# Basic Concepts
Mainly, there are 2 types of bank data in SAP Finance.
1. ‘House Bank’
‘House Bank’ of a company is the bank that the company has an account with and the company will use the bank to process payment transactions.
2. ‘Customer and Vendor’ bank
‘Customer’ is the key point of the ‘Order to Cash’ scenario. We sell goods or services to them and we will receive the payments (incoming payment) from them.
‘Vendor’ is the key point of the ‘Procure to Pay’ scenario. We receive goods or services from them and we will run the outgoing payment to them.
To do the ‘Incoming Payment’ and ‘Outgoing Payment’, we may need to know the bank information of the customer/vendor. After we have their bank information, we should create the bank data in the system and maintain the bank data to the customer/vendor master data (In S/4 HANA, maintain the bank data under the related customer/vendor BP rules).
# Master Data
Firstly, I will create a house bank record for the company.
Transaction Code: FI12
One company code can have more than one house bank.
Create a new bank account by clicking the ‘Create Bank Account’ button.
A web-based page will appear, make sure the fields under the ‘General Data’ tab are filled.
After filling the fields, change to the ‘House Bank Account Connectivity’ tab. At least, the ‘House Bank Acct ID’ field should be filled (this field is one of the key fields of the table ‘T012K’). If you cannot see this tab, check the setting in view ‘FCLM_CONFIG2’.
I created G/L account ‘100010’ for the house bank, the ‘House bank’ and ‘Account ID’ fields should be filled in transaction code FS00.
After saving the change, the bank account will be created under the house bank.
2. ‘Customer and Vendor’ bank
I will create a bank record for the vendor to be used.
Transaction Code: FI01
After the bank record is created, I will assign it to the related Business Partner.
Transaction Code: BP
Assign the bank information to the BP under the ‘Payment Transactions’ tab.
3. Bank clearing account
Some of the daily transactions will be recorded to the bank clearing G/L account, these records will be recorded as open items. The open items will be cleared by the incoming bank statements later.
Transaction Code: FS00
Both of the bank clearing account and the G/L account assigned to the house bank will be ‘Balance Sheet Account’.
# Procurement Process
1. Purchase Order
I will create a ‘Purchase Order’ directly (not from a ‘Purchase Requisition’).
Transaction Code: ME21N
2. Inbound Delivery
Transaction Code: VL31N
3. Goods Receipt
Transaction Code: MIGO
4. Logistics Invoice Verification
Transaction Code: MIRO
Display the created document by transaction code MIR4.
Clicking the ‘Follow-On Documents’ button on the screen, the related invoice document will be displayed.
5. Clear Open Item
Firstly, let’s take a look at the open item.
Transaction Code: FBL1N
I will use transaction code F-53 (‘Post Outing Payment’) to clear the open item.
The ‘Account’ (Bank Data) is the bank clearing account which we defined in the previous step.
The clearing document created:
The open item also cleared.
# Bank Reconciliation
As mentioned in this blog post, the bank clearing account will be used to manage the open item.
Transaction Code: FBL3N
An open item appeared under the bank clearing account.
To clear the open item, I will manually input a bank statement (‘Electronic Bank Statement’ will be introduced in another blog post) by transaction code FF67. This transaction will create a statement and we can post the statement to clear the open item under the bank clearing account.
The post will create a batch input session (can be checked by transaction code SM35), the batch input session will use transaction code FB05 to do the clearing (posting key 50, the G/L account assigned to the house bank). After the clearing finish, the open item under the bank clearing account will be cleared and the amount will be recorded under the house bank’s G/L account.
In this blog post, I tried to introduce the ‘Banking’ basic settings by the ‘Procure to Pay’ scenario. I hope this could help you.