Different shades of SAP – Manufacturing vs Retail
After 20 years of manufacturing experience when I joined Retail and oil & Gas, it felt like I walked into a whole new world. First few weeks were brutal trying to learn the company lingo and the industry lingo. The only way I could deal with this was come up with a cheat sheet of mapping. And then I got access to SAP. I am not a veteran of SAP by no means, far from it. My experience is solely in Manufacturing industry. So, imagine opening SAP and nothing much makes sense. I drilled down logistics and came across Retailing. Makes sense. I am in retailing business … Then went to my favorite master data and then my frustration started… what is site data? What is its counterpart for Manufacturing. What is article master and why cannot I do much thru MM02, what is the difference between Retailing and Store Retailing?
The result of my journey is this blog. This is neither exhaustive nor is this a training document. This blog is to give a sense of balance and links to other documents on the web that can be useful.
Here is a link to SAP Help –
When someone talks about SAP they are in general talking about Standard SAP. When we are in a specific line of business T-codes, looks and / or labels are different. MIGO does not only look the same but behaves the same in both versions. But MRP Area or Material Ledger cannot be used when the system is set as IS Retail. MRP can still be run as Retail is nothing but trading and trading requires purchase orders.
SAP Retail is based on the retail supply chain process. Stores will raise a PO to the distribution Center and DC would place a PO for the Vendors to maximize the discounts. Vendors might directly deliver to Stores or back to DC depending on the transportation setup. ERP is usually the final step in the process. Layouts (physically where the product is placed), F & R and PoS (Point of Sales) trigger and feed what happens in ERP.
Retail uses Class and Characteristics concept with different names. There are Retail specific Class type available.
One other thing that is important to note is once the system is turned Retail, there is no going back. This results in certain tables are “turned active”. Certain fields make more sense like Seasonal Promotions There are specific tables that are available to use with the Retail setup … WLK1; WAKH; WAKP etc. configuration can now be master data. Site in Retail is master data where as its counterpart, Plant is configuration
To check if the system is set as retail execute SPRO / IMG / Activate Business Functions.
|Material||MM01; MM02; MM03||Article||MM41; MM42; MM43|
|Plant||Configuration||Site / Department Store/ Customer||WB01; WB02; WB03 (Sites can also be transported)|
|Change Site Assignment customer||WB07|
|Classification||CL01; CL02; CL03||Grouping / Assortment||WB50; WB70 etc.|
|Material Groups||Configuration||Article Groups||WG24;|
|Mass Change Materials||MM17||Mass Change Articles||MM46|
|Bill of Materials||CS01, CS02, CS03||Bill of materials||MGW T-codes|
|Mass Listing||WSM3 / WSM8|
|Listing||Listing is not just extending an article to a site but also making sure it can be purchased/sold. Its like extending a material to a plant and then some. There are different set of Listing tables|
Assigning Articles to merchandise assortments and assortment modules. The assignment will generate listing conditions. A site cannot purchase or sell an article that is not contained in one of its assortment
Assortments are grouped together under Class type 047
|Listing Conditions||Assignment of individual articles to assortments for selling. The conditions contain validity dates and other details (table WLK1)|
|Grouping||Class / Characteristics – Used for Allocation; Promotion; Assignment;|
|Substitution||Substitution can occur at vendor or article level. There could be one distribution center that receives the PO with an assortment and bursts out multiple sub vendor PO’s. In case or a hot breakfast basket, there could be cereals, bagels or donuts and each must be purchased by a different vendor. For Article substitution, it could be as simple as bag sizes or a flavor or type – organic vs non organic spinach. Substitution can happen due to promotions, new market testing, shortages etc|
|Assignment||Site is always maintained in SAP Retail in its capacity as a customer. since sales functions, such as delivering and billing, are carried out by head office for the site. Sites can be assigned to a class (Area Manager) https://help.sap.com/saphelp_erp2005/helpdata/EN/12/0842f1470311d1894a0000e8323352/frameset.htm|
|Article Hierarchy||Enables the grouping by customer -oriented structure.|
|DSD||Direct Store Delivery (when you see a non store employee stock your favorite soda in the store next time you can say DSD)|
What helped me the most is standing behind the counter and watching the product move. It was literally following the bread crumbs.