This blog is aimed to provide an insight and overall understanding and consideration of currency setup in S/4HANA environment and have tried to answer the following queries.
- What is currency type
- In SAP S/4HANA how many kind of currency types exists
- How to setup custom currency type
- How to set a currency key with the custom currency types
- How to setup currency in Finance and linking Currency and Ledger
- Options to setup currency in material Ledger
- Options to setup currency in Transfer Pricing
- Options to setup currency in Controlling Area
- Options to setup currency in COPA
- Options to setup currency in New Asset Accounting
What is currency type
In SAP configuration, currency plays an important role. In SAP, all currencies are maintained according to ISO Standard. We can configure currencies as per the rules of the country defined in the company code. SAP provides currencies of every country and we can also define our own currency if we require.
Currency Types in S/4HANA
We have following standard Currency types in SAP S/4HANA
Currency Type 00
Document currency is the currency that is applied for the document and company code currency is the currency where the document is generated. Example : An Indian company does a posting for a Sale of goods in USA. In this case the document currency would be USD and the Company code currency would be INR
Currency Type 10
Company code currency is defied at company code level in transaction OX02
11- Co Code Currency Group Valuation (used in Transfer Pricing)
12- Co Code Currency PC Valuation (used in Transfer Pricing)
(Currency Type 11 and 12 are explained in transfer pricing section)
You can select currency type 10 in controlling area only if all company codes assigned to the controlling area uses same currency.
Currency Type 20
If data is returned from Controlling to financial accounting in your application, for example via order settlement, you must use a currency type in the controlling area that is also used as the currency type of a parallel currency in the assigned company codes. Typically, these are the currency types for a group currency, hard currency or index-based currency.
–> Currency type 20 cannot be used in FI.
Currency type 20 is supported in FINSC_LEDGER, therefore only for compatibility reasons; if currency type 20 was already used in CO, then after migration of the currency configuration, “KSL” field of ACDOCA will be used for CO only, and FI will work with the fields HSL, OSL and VSL.
For new installations we strongly recommend to configure currency type 30 in CO and in FI (for the KSL (Group Currency) field in ACDOCA).
Currency Type 30
You define the currency key for these currency types when you define the client. You can define it by T-code: SCC4.
Currency type 20 is only known by cost accounting, whereas currency type 30 is known in financial accounting also. Therefore, data transmission via the modules CO, AM, and FI works seamlessly without any difficulties if currency type 30 is used by all.
Whether to use currency type 20 or 30 to know more detail you may read OSS note 119428
31- Group Currency Group Valuation (used in Transfer Pricing)
32- Group Currency PC Valuation (used in Transfer Pricing)
(Currency Type 31 and 32 are explained in transfer pricing section)
Currency Type 40 and 50
Hard Currency and Index Based Currency
You define the currency key for this currency type when defining the countries in the “Hard currency” field T-code: OY01
If you select currency type 40 or 50 in controlling area, the company codes must either be in the same country, or the countries must use the same index-based currency or hard currency.
Currency Type 60 – Global Company Currency
If you select currency type 60 in Controlling area, the company codes must belong to the same company, or the companies must use the same currency.
With currency types 40, 50, and 60, specify the currency only as long as no company codes have been assigned. If company codes have been assigned, the system defaults the currency automatically.
Currency Type 70 Object currency (CO)
Each object in Controlling, such as cost center or internal order, may use a separate currency specified in its master data. When you create an object in CO, the SAP system defaults the currency of the company code to which the object is assigned as the object currency. You can specify a different object currency only if the controlling area currency is the same as the company code currency. There is an object currency for the sender as well as one for the receiver.
Supported currencies in ERP
Still in S/4HANA till On-premise 1709 release we have maximum 3 currencies in FI(BSEG), 2 currencies in CO and 3 currencies in ML. However in Universal Journal table(ACDOCA) we can have maximum upto 10 currencies.
Currencies used in S/4HANA 1610 Onwards
From SAP S/4HANA 1610 On Premise version as well with SAP S/4 HANA Finance 1605 we can have upto 10 currencies in Universal Journal (ACDOCA)
Go to SPRO -> Financial Accounting->Financial Accounting Global Settings-> Ledgers-> Ledger -> Define Settings for Ledgers and Currency Types
In this Customizing activity, you configure the currency types and currency conversion settings that you use in Accounting and define the corresponding ledger settings and assign accounting principles for ledgers and company codes.
Check your currency settings and create additional currency types if required. Your own currency types must begin with the letter Y or Z, for example Y1, Y2, ZA etc.
For each currency type you decide whether you want the corresponding currency conversion settings to be valid globally for all company codes or want to define the currency conversion settings at company code-level.
You can’t make any changes to the SAP standard currency types Document Currency (00) and Company Code Currency (10). For the other standard currency types, you can define whether the corresponding currency conversion settings are valid globally or at company code-level.
If you are using transfer prices, create the required number of currency types (depending on the valuation methods you need) and select the valuation view you need (legal, group, or profit center valuation). For the currency types with group or profit center valuation, you need to enter the base currency type, meaning the currency type with the legal valuation view on which the transfer prices valuation will be based. For each base currency type there can be only one currency type using group valuation and one using profit center valuation.
Global Currency Conversion Settings
For your own currency types, enter the currency into which the conversion is to be made (Currency field), and the currency from which currency conversion is to be made (Source Currency field). In addition, enter the exchange rate type and the date on which the translation is to be carried out (document date, posting date, or translation date). You can also decide whether the currency conversion shall be done in real-time. If you don’t select the Real-time Conversion checkbox, you can do this at period-end closing using the foreign currency run.
Currency Conversion Settings for Company Codes
Company code settings for the ledger
ACDOCA V/s BSEG currency settings
First 2 Currency fields are derived from local currency i.e company code currency and controlling area currency and rest 8 fields are freely defied currency per ledger and all these fields you may see in Universal Journal table (ACDOCA)
There is no dependency on the currency types of the leading ledger.
Real-time currency conversion for all currency types is possible (or with foreign currency valuation program at period-end
Still BSEG is populated with 3 currencies so you may choose which 3 currencies you want to populate in BSEG (of course first currency will be default to company code currency for BSEG)
For further detail you may refer OSS note 2344012 (Currencies in Universal Journal)
Currencies used in Controlling
The system uses this currency for cost accounting. This currency is set up when you create the controlling area. It is based on the assignment control indicator and the currency type, following possible currencies can be assigned to controlling area, these are explained in currency type section above.
10 Company code currency
30 Group currency
40 Hard currency
50 Index-based currency
60 Global company currency
Controlling Area Currency
SPRO-> Controlling-> General Controlling-> Organization-> Maintain Controlling Area
Transaction Currency (CO)
Documents in Controlling are posted in the transaction currency. The transaction currency can differ from the controlling area currency and the object currency. The system automatically converts the values to the controlling area currency at the exchange rate specified.
The transaction currency is USD, the controlling area currency is EUR, and the object currency is SFR (Swiss francs). The system converts the amounts as follows:
- From transaction currency to controlling area currency (USD to EUR)
- From controlling area currency to object currency (EUR to SFR)
Material Ledger Currencies
SPRO->Controlling->Product Cost Controlling-> Actual Costing/Material Ledger-> Assign Currency Types and Define Material Ledger Types
Currency Type 10, 30
With Transfer Pricing active
For example we can have following currency types in Material Ledger
Currency Type 10, 31
Currency Type 10, 32
Currency Type 10, 31,32
Profit Center Currency with Transfer Pricing
It is common to set 30 in the controlling area, 10 and 32 in the currency and valuation profile, and 10 and 32 in the material ledger.
If you then set the profit center local currency type to 30 and valuation view 2 (profit center valuation) in Profit Center Accounting, the currency type 32 is continuously used. In Profit Center Accounting, 32 is updated as profit center local currency in the currency field KSL. The company code local currency in the profit center valuation (12) is then translated from the values 32 with the exchange rate type M with the current exchange rate (and updated in the field HSL). This means that in Profit Center Accounting, only the PCA valuation is available. The legal valuation (10, 30) is no longer available in PCA.
Similarly, if you then set the profit center local currency type to 30 and valuation view 1 (Group Valuation) is selected in profit center accounting then the currency type 31 is used. In Profit Center Accounting, 31 is updated as profit center local currency in the currency field KSL. The company code local currency in the profit center valuation (11) is then translated from the values 31 with the exchange rate type M with the current exchange rate (and updated in the field HSL). This means that in Profit Center Accounting, only the group valuation is available. The legal valuation (10, 30) is no longer available in PCA.
The flows of goods in legal valuation and in profit center valuation are valuated differently, even if the currency key is identical. For details. Please read the SAP note 1442153 .
If you need to change, add or delete any currency settings after the Material Ledger is productive, you would need to reverse the customizing changes, deactivate the Material Ledger, change the customizing to the desired values and restart the Material Ledger again. As a consequence, you will lose all the Material Ledger data in the system. Please, check the KBA 1511335 on this topic. Take into account that deactivation means running report SAPRCKMJX, and this report deletes all the Material Ledger data for the corresponding plant.
An alternative would be to use the SLO conversion services so that all Material Ledger data in the tables for currency type 20 are converted to currency type 30. Please, consider that this is a chargeable service.
Transfer Pricing Define Currency + Valuation Profile
You only need the currency and valuation profiles if you want to manage various valuations in parallel in your system
Group and profit center valuation must also be managed correspondingly in the material ledger as a currency type and valuation category as explained in material ledger section.
Typical currency settings with profit center valuation:-
FI: 10, 32
Currency and valuation profile: 10, 32
Material ledger: 10, 32
Profit Center Accounting: 30 and profit center valuation (= 32)
PCA 32 (KSL), 12 (HSL)
Currency type 12 is translated from 32 with Exchange rate type M at current rate
This means that in Profit Center Accounting, only the PCA valuation is available. The legal valuation (10, 30) is no longer available in PCA
Typical currency settings with Group valuation:-
FI: 10, 31
Currency and valuation profile: 10, 31
Material ledger: 10, 31
Profit Center Accounting: 30 and profit center valuation (= 31)
PCA 32 (KSL), 11 (HSL)
Currency type 12 is translated from 32 with Exchange rate type M at current rate
This means that in Profit Center Accounting, only Group valuation is available. The legal valuation (10, 30) is no longer available in PCA
Transfer Pricing Currency setup in Account V/s Ledger approach
The following two functions are available: For your valuation views, you can either use separate ledgers or map multiple valuation views within a ledger.
If you decide on the scenario with separate ledgers, assign a valuation view to a ledger: The legal, group, or profit center valuation view. In this ledger, you can only configure currency types in the appropriate valuation view. The local and global currency are then always configured in the valuation view of the respective ledger.
If you want to use multiple valuation views within a ledger, do not assign a valuation view to the ledger. The local and global currency are then always used in the legal valuation view in this ledger.
Separate ledger approach is available from S/4HANA1610 onwards that means if customers are already using transfer pricing in their source system and doing a conversion to S/4HANA 1610 or higher version then the second approach i.e “Several valuation views within a ledger” would be possible solution.
For further detail you may use this link:-
Operating Concern Currency
This determines the currency and the valuation view in which the values in CO-PA are to be displayed or planned.
Actual data can be updated simultaneously in all the combinations of currency type and valuation that are described below, planning data is always updated in one currency only – the currency specified for that particular plan version.
If you deactivate the company code currency, you can no longer use plan versions and reports that use the company code currency.
New Asset Accounting Currency
For each currency defined in General Ledger Accounting, you have to create parallel depreciation areas in new Asset Accounting.
Fixed Asset Accounting currently only supports the FI relevant (BSEG-) Currencies.
For additional currency types, which are not BSEG relevant, you do not need to create dep area; these currencies are converted during posting. This means, the sum of all depreciations does not balance with the activation value for the additional currencies.
For detail understanding on how to configure new asset accounting by aligning the depreciation area /accounting principal with currencies defined in Finance , please refer this blog on S/4 HANA- New Asset Accounting – Considering Key Aspects:-
This blog is written based on my own experience and have referred various OSS notes, Your feedback is welcome.
Brought to you by the S/4HANA RIG
Product Expert (SAP S/4HANA Regional Implementation Group- APJ)