Dynamic Programming in ABAP – Part 2 – Introduction to Data Reference
In my last blog I explained about field symbols, below is the link for same:
In this blog I am going to explain about data references and its significance in dynamic programming.
According to SAP documentation, Data references can point to any data objects or to their parts (components, rows of internal tables, or sections specified by offsets and lengths).
So data references are nothing but pointers. It stores the memory address of any data object. But to access the actual data object which data reference is pointing to, we first need to deference it using dereferencing operator ->*.
Difference between field symbol and data reference:
Field symbol is a placeholder for data object to which it is assigned and points to the content of data object hence it can be used at any operand position (no need to dereference it) and works with the content of the referenced memory area (value semantics).
Data references are pointers to data objects and it contains the memory address of data object (reference semantics). Data reference cannot be used at operand position directly; it should be dereferenced first.
Working with data reference:
There can be two types of data references:
- Typed Data Reference
- Generic Data Reference
Typed Data Reference:
Typed data reference variable can be declared as:
DATA lr_num TYPE REF TO i. CREATE DATA lr_num.
Here first statement declares a reference variable lr_num which can point to any data object of type “i”. And second statement creates an anonymous data object of type “i” and assigns the reference of this data object to lr_num. Now if we want to change the value of data object, then it can be done by dereferencing lr_num by using dereference operator ->* as shown below:
DATA lr_num TYPE REF TO i. CREATE DATA lr_num. lr_num->* = 2. WRITE: / lr_num->*.
The output will be 2.
- With ABAP 7.40, instead of CREATE DATA, the NEW operator can also be used to create an anonymous data object and assigns its reference to a data reference variable.
DATA lr_num TYPE REF TO i. lr_num = NEW #( ).
Assigning existing data object to data reference:
If you want to assign the reference of an existing data object to a data reference, you can use GET REFERENCE statement.
DATA: lv_num TYPE i VALUE 2. DATA: lr_num TYPE REF TO i. GET REFERENCE OF lv_num INTO lr_num. lr_num->* = 4. WRITE: / lv_num.
Here lv_num is an existing data object (not anonymous data object). The output would be 4.
- With ABAP 7.40, instead of GET REFERENCE, the REF operator also can be used to assign the reference of an existing data object to a data reference.
Working with structures:
DATA: lr_mara TYPE REF TO mara. CREATE DATA lr_mara. lr_mara->matnr = '1111'. lr_mara->matkl = '03'.
Here individual components of the structure can be accessed with -> operator on data reference variable.
Working with internal tables:
While processing internal table row, we can use REFERENCE INTO statement to set references to table rows as shown below:
DATA: lr_mara TYPE REF TO mara. DATA: lt_mara TYPE TABLE OF mara. SELECT * FROM mara INTO TABLE lt_mara UP TO 10 ROWS. LOOP AT lt_mara REFERENCE INTO lr_mara. WRITE: / lr_mara->matnr. ENDLOOP.
Generic Data Reference:
Generic data reference can be declared as:
DATA: lr_num TYPE REF TO data. CREATE DATA lr_num TYPE i.
Here first statement declares a generic data reference lr_num which can point to any data object. And second statement creates an anonymous data object of type “i” and assigns its reference to lr_num.
‘data’ in ABAP is a generic data type.
Now since lr_num is generic, lr_num->* cannot be directly used at operand position. Hence the below statement would not be allowed.
lr_num->* = 2.
So in case of generic data reference, it can only be dereferenced using a field symbol, and this field symbol can be used at any operand position to manipulate the value of data object as shown below:
DATA: lr_num TYPE REF TO data. FIELD-SYMBOLS: <num> TYPE any. CREATE DATA lr_num TYPE i. ASSIGN lr_num->* TO <num>. <num> = 3.
- After ASSIGN statement you should check sy-subrc If field symbol assignment is successful, sy-subrc will be 0 otherwise it will be 4.
Working with structures:
DATA: lr_str TYPE REF TO data. FIELD-SYMBOLS: <str> TYPE any. FIELD-SYMBOLS: <data> TYPE any. CREATE DATA lr_str TYPE mara. ASSIGN lr_str->* TO <str>. ASSIGN COMPONENT 'MATNR' OF STRUCTURE <str> TO <data>. <data> = '112'.
Here CREATE DATA statement creates an anonymous data object (MARA structure) and assigns its reference to the generic data reference lr_str, which then can be dereferenced into a generic field symbol <str>. Now, to access individual component of MARA structure, ASSIGN COMPONENT statement can be used.
Dynamically create data objects:
Requirement: Selection screen parameter “Table Name” will take a table name as input and display the corresponding table entries as output.
PARAMETERS: p_tname TYPE tabname. DATA: lr_tab TYPE REF TO data. FIELD-SYMBOLS: <tab> TYPE ANY TABLE. CREATE DATA lr_tab TYPE TABLE OF (p_tname). ASSIGN lr_tab->* TO <tab>. IF sy-subrc EQ 0. SELECT * FROM (p_tname) INTO TABLE <tab> UP TO 10 ROWS. cl_demo_output=>display( <tab> ). ENDIF.
Here lr_tab is a generic data reference and <tab> is a generic field symbol for internal table. In CREATE DATA statement, the type of data object is mentioned in parenthesis which means that the type will be determined at runtime based on the value of parameter p_tname. After that we have dereferenced the data reference lr_tab into a generic field symbol <tab>. Now this field symbol can be used to do any valid operation on the internal table.
Difference between data reference and object reference:
There are two types of reference variable:
- Data reference and
- Object reference
Data reference variable can store the reference to any data object (variable, structures, internal tables etc.) whereas Object reference variable can store the reference to any class object.
For data reference variables, either the generic data type or a completely specified data type can be specified. For object reference variables, either a class or an interface can be specified.
Thank you for reading.
In next blog, I have put one example of dynamic programming approach: