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In this blog post I will be covering the features of Access Controls (Data Control Language) and how they can be used to enable row level authorization restriction on CDS views.

Creating a new access control

 

Different types of DCLs

  1. DCL in which relevant authorization objects are included on relevant fieldsResult set of a CDS view will be filtered by the restriction applied on fields included in the DCL of a CDS view.The relevant annotation included in CDS view is
    @AccessControl.authorizationCheck:#CHECK​

    Multiple authorization objects can be clubbed together with

    and

    or

    or

    operator. Rules of evaluating the pfcg_auth are mentioned after 4th type.

  2. DCL which inherit the authorization from another DCLThe authorization objects included in the
    $cds_entity

    will be the ones which are  included in

    $super_role_name​

    Usage of such DCL is encouraged in connected CDS view. For example in the hierarchies like,

    consumption view on
    |– transactional view on
    |–basic view on table

    The DCL of basic CDS view will have relevant authorization object and transactional CDS view and Consumption CDS view will inherit the lower DCLs.

    The relevant annotation included in CDS view is

    @AccessControl.authorizationCheck:#CHECK​​
  3. DCL with unrestricted accessSuch a DCL is used when unrestricted access is given to the user of the CDS view. Creating such a DCL on a CDS view declares that the data from the CDS view should be extracted without any restriction. This is very specific scenario based.The relevant annotation included in CDS view is
    @AccessControl.authorizationCheck:#CHECK​​
  4. DCL0 which completely blocks the data from a CDS viewA DCL0 or a access inhibiting DCL is used when the data should be blocked completely from a CDS view entity. The data can be accessed using specific annotation in the CDS view which is trying to access data from a CDS view protected by a DCL0.The annotation included in CDS view is
    @AccessControl.authorizationCheck:#PRIVILEGED_ONLY​

     

Hierarchy of the evaluation of a PFCG condition

The following rule applies with respect to the hierarchy of the evaluation of a PFCG condition:

  • If multiple authorizations are evaluated, the resulting conditions are joined using a logical “or”.
  • In the conditions of each authorization used, the values for the authorization fields in question are joined using a logical “and”.
  • If there are multiple values for an authorization field, they are joined using a logical “or”.

Data Preview after creating a DCL/DCL0

In ABAP development tools in data preview the result set is always filtered by a DCL after having annotation as described above.

If the annotation included in CDS view is

@AccessControl.authorizationCheck:#NOT_REQUIRED

and even if a DCL exist for such a CDS view the result set will not be filtered by the DCL.

Inside a DCL

  1. Define RoleProvide a role name here
  2. Grant Select on

    This is the CDS View on which data restriction are to be applied through a DCL. DDL source name should be used and not the SQL view of the DDL source.

  3. WhereThis is the field which is to be restricted. If there is an alias in the CDS view this, the alias should be used and not the technical name.
  4. Aspect pfcg_authThis is the place to include the authorization object and the fields on which it is applied with the ACTVT permitted activities. The possible value of ACTVT for that authrization object can be seen in TCODE SU21 as shown below. As most CDS views are used for reading, 03 is used which is for display.
  5. @MappingRoleThis annotation must have the value true, so this role is assigned to all users in the system. The value false is not supported.

Define role operators in a DCL

The following operators can be used in the where clause while defining a role. The operator compares a left side and a right side. The left side is always an element of the CDS entity to which the rule applies. The right side is represented using a literal value. The result of the expression is true or false.

operator True if
= The value of the left side is equal to the value of the right side.
<> The value of the left side is not equal to the value of the right side.
< The value of the left side is less than the value of the right side.
> The value of the left side is greater than the value of the right side.
<= The value of the left side is less than or equal to the value of the right side.
>= The value of the left side is greater than or equal to the value of the right side.
?= The value of left side can be blank or filled equal to the value on the right side.
IS [NOT] NULL The value on the left side is (not) the null value.

 

Some Examples

  • Multiple fields of a CDS view can be mapped to different authorization fields of an authorization object as shown below. The ACTVT fields described above decides the permitted activities allowed when the CDS view is accessed.
    @MappingRole: 'true' 
    DEFINE ROLE demo_role { 
        grant SELECT ON entity WHERE 
            (cdsfield_1, cdsfield_2 ) = ASPECT pfcg_auth 
                                        ( object, 
                                          authfield_1, 
                                          authfield_2, 
                                          ACTVT = '03'); 
    }​

    If ?= instead of = is used in the example above, the access condition is expanded as follows:
             

     ... 
              authfield_1 = 'A' OR 
              ( ( cdsfield_1 IS NULL or cdsfield_1 = '' ) AND 
                ( cdsfield_2 IS NULL or cdsfield_2 = '' ) ) )

     

  • It is also possible to not map any field from the CDS view to the authorization object field. This means CDS access control prevents data from being read in full if the current user does not have at least an authorization for the authorization object object with the activity “03”.
    @MappingRole: true 
    DEFINE ROLE demo_role { 
        GRANT SELECT ON entity WHERE 
        ( ) = ASPECT pfcg_auth( authobject, ACTVT = '03' ); }

     

  • Using the following code only those authorizations are used that contain all the permitted activities defined plus the authorization field country with the value “IN”. Only the rows satisfying this condition from the CDS view are fetched matching the authorization field values.
    @MappingRole: true 
    DEFINE ROLE demo_role { 
        GRANT SELECT ON entity WHERE 
        (cdsfield_1) = ASPECT pfcg_auth( object, 
                                         authfield_1, 
                                         ACTVT = '02', 
                                         ACTVT = '03', 
                                         country = 'IN' );
    }​

     

I hope this blog post was informative and helps you to secure the data of a CDS view using data control language (DCL).

 

Also details about Restriction Type for Authorization fields used as part of DCLs 

  1. The authorization object for example: X_XX_OBJ added in DCLs become part of PFCG role appearing in authorization tab from the relevant OData service SU22 data.
  2. If you find that the added authorization object needs a restriction type for CLOUD from its View cluster (go to transaction SM34->give APS_IAM_VC as View cluster, then click on Display)
    Then follow steps as mentioned in wiki to add it to your Business catalog restriction OR create new Restriction type if required as per wiki.
  3. After creation or addition of restriction type check for XPRA creation with central IAM you can use this wiki.

 

You can contact my colleague A S, VENKAT BHARGAV.

 

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