Skip to Content

SAP S/4HANA 1610 Fully-Activated Appliance: Create your SAP S/4HANA 1610 system in a fraction of the usual setup time

If you are a short-fused reader or have no time

The appliance in three bullets and 30 seconds:

  • The appliance contains an SAP S/4HANA 1610 system with pre-configured SAP Best Practices and demo scenarios (it is the successor of the SAP S/4HANA, on-premise edition 1511 appliance and trial).
  • It can be rapidly brought up as your personal instance with administrative rights either hosted (in 1-2 hours) or on-premise (in 1-2 days)
  • Typical use cases are sandboxing, proof-of-concept, scoping, etc., Fastest way to consume is via the SAP S/HANA 1610 30-day trial (video tutorials can be found here)

A quick word on the SAP S/4HANA FPS01 update of the appliance:

We released a technical update for this fully-activated appliance based on SAP S/4HANA 1610 FPS01 that fixes many of the known issues.

You can create an instance as usual from the SAP CAL console. The link points directly to the FPS01 solution, or you can manually search for “SAP S/4HANA 1610 FPS01 Fully-Activated Appliance” in the CAL solution tab. A slightly updated demo guide for the FPS01 update is also available.

Please note that the instance passwords Welcome1 and Welcome2 can not be used for this FPS01 update (the deployment of the HANA/ABAP virtual machine will fail with those).

Dec. 14th, 2017: The SAP S/4HANA 1709 Fully-Activated Appliance is available:


More details needed ? Read on…

What is an appliance ?

A (software) appliance is a compressed system (think of it as a large .tar or .zip file) that can be rapidly extracted into a regular system instance by preserving everything that has been configured in the appliance during the build phase of it,
This makes it an ideal medium for pre-configured systems e.g. for sandboxing, proof-of-concept or scoping/fit-gap purposes.

In the SAP S/4HANA 1610 fully-activated appliance, you will find the SAP S/4HANA software (along with some other components, see further below), the fully-activated SAP Best Practices for SAP S/4HANA 1610 (incl. technical configuration e.g. for the Fiori launchpad), and prepared demo scenarios with sample master and transactional data.


[Fig 1]: SAP S/4HANA 1610 Fully-Activated Appliance – Concept

How can the appliance be consumed ?

The appliance can be consumed in two ways

  1. In a hosted environment (using cloud provider infrastructure such as Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure or the SAP-internal Monsoon) with the SAP Cloud Appliance Library (SAP CAL) as bridge into the hosting providers.
    Setup time is 1-2 hours, and the easiest way is to use the SAP S/4HANA 1610 30-day trial.
  2. On dedicated on-premise hardware that has a supported Linux release installed (everything else will come with the appliance).
    Setup time is 1-2 days.

Details for option 1 (hosted):
If you are already experienced with the SAP S/4HANA on-premise edition 1511 trial, you will find it easy to use the new appliance&trial release since the ‘mechanics’ are the same as before:

  • Built-in 30-day test & evaluation license for SAP S/4HANA and SAP CAL (free of charge for the supported trial scenarios during that time)
  • Amazon Web Services (AWS) or MS Azure fees  (~ 4–5 USD per uptime hour) are charged to your account
  • Support via asking the SAP CAL community
  • Possibility to extend the 30-day trial phase by acquiring an SAP CAL subscription license (requires valid SAP S/4HANA license as well)

If you are new to trials in SAP Cloud Appliance Library, there’s a detailed ‘Quick Start Guide’ on the SAP S/4HANA 1610 trial page to get started. Registration in AWS/Azure and SAP CAL takes a few minutes, start-up of your personal trial instance will take 1-2 hours.

[Fig 2]: SAP S/4HANA 1610 – 30-day trial summary


Details for option 2 (on-premise installation):

You can receive the trial appliance for installation on your own on-premise hardware either via download or via shipment of 3 Blu-Ray discs (the appliance size is ~ 100 GB).

The shipment is free of charge, however, corresponding SAP licenses need to be in place. For SAP customers, an engagement with either SAP Consulting or an enabled SAP partner is required to receive and deploy the solution on customer premises. Ordering of the discs by a partner and deploying it on customer-site afterwards is not allowed.

The following SAP notes contain more information on the ordering process:

[Fig 3]: SAP S/4HANA 1610 Appliance – Consumption Methods

The following chart summarizes the deployment options and the needed license / cost drivers for each option.

[Fig 4]: SAP S/4HANA 1610 Appliance – License & Cost Drivers


What is the content & scope ?

The scope of the appliance centers on the SAP Best Practices content and has been extended compared to the 1511 release.
It now covers the below 9 ‘walkthrough’ scenarios that are explained in detail in an extensive demo script on the SAP S/4HANA 1610 trial homepage.

  • Order-to-cash
  • Cash daily operations
  • Procure-to-pay (incl. Extended Warehouse Mgmt. EWM)
  • Plan-to-product
  • EWM Outbound Processing
  • Investments
  • Fiori Custom Fields
  • BI Platform Reports
  • SAP Screen Personas

[Fig 5 a&b]: SAP S/4HANA 1610 demo walk-throughs

But of course you’re free to explore and adapt the system as needed (and covered by the terms&conditions of the trial) since you have full administrative rights and even access to the Linux operating system.


What is technically contained in the appliance ?

Technically, the trial consists of four virtual machines that are automatically bundled into one solution instance:

  1. SAP S/4HANA (the core ABAP backend incl. the SAP HANA database)
  2. SAP NW JAVA with Adobe Document Services (for forms, output management, and usage in Credit Management)
  3. An SAP BusinessObjects BI Platform for display of pre-configured BI reports
  4. MS Windows remote desktop for easy access of the trial system

3. & 4. are optional components in SAP CAL (you can opt out of the deployment in the advanced mode of the SAP CAL instance creation) and are also not shipped to customers for the on-premise installation.

[Fig. 6]: Software components of the appliance and virtual machines

More information & known issues

This presentation provides more information about the appliance. And the appendix below lists all assets that might be relevant in this context.

One important note at the end:
Once you have created an appliance instance (be it hosted or on-premise), it behaves like a regular on-premise system.
And this means that SAP cannot access or patch your appliance instance but you have to solve issues on your own.
This blog summarizes the known issues and provides fixing hints where available. It will be continuously updated. May the fix be with you…

Best and enjoy the SAP S/4HANA 1610 appliance,



Appendix: Link collection

Software appliance in general:

30-day trial:

On-premise download / Blu-Ray shipment:

SAP CAL information:

You must be Logged on to comment or reply to a post.
  • Hi Joerg,

    very nice blog, thanks for the detailed Infos!

    Am I right to assume that that partners taking part in the January 2017-edition of "Demo21" will end up with exactly such a system?


  • Hi Joachim,

    yes, the appliance will also be used for DEMO21 (however, you won't have a remote desktop and a BI platform in it since this is only available via the hosted SAP CAL deployment).


  • Hi Joerg
    AWS has a free tier for t2.micro instances and 750 hrs permonth  , is there a way to configure this appliance  to use say two t2.micro instances so that the free tier applies.

    I am actually looking for a ABAP backend (even a netweaver ABAP with no IDES will do , also on AS2/MAX DB ) hosted on CAL.SAP.COM.

    Best options ?

    • Hi Joseph.

      the S/4 1610 CAL solution will not run on t2.micro machines,

      And even the smallest available NW ABAP 7.50 solution on ASE ( requires r3.large (2 cores, 15 GB RAM).

      Potential option could be to use MS Azure since they provide a monetary starter bonus that can be used on any machine size (as far as I know - never tried it).
      Minimum machine sizes there are H16m (for the ABAP/HANA part) and A6 (for the JAVA part that is required for Adobe Document Services scenarios).


      • Interesting.... H16m 24x7x365 at 1,600€/month aprox... Is H16m the next Azure VM type supported to run SAP on HANA for large instances instead of S-types as per OSS note "2316233 - SAP HANA on Microsoft Azure (Large Instances)" but not yet available in Azure Pricing Calculator?

  • Hi Joerg,

    Thank you for putting this in place.

    We are considering launching this appliance on AWS as a reference to help our team translate implementation-specific material from Spanish into French.

    Does this trial appliance have language support for both Spanish and French?

    Also, does SAP S/4HANA include the old SAPTerm transaction (STERM)?


    • Hi Josep,

      both French and Spanish are installed as system languages in the appliance.

      The transaction STERM is also included, however, it has not been configured/used during the development phase of the appliance.
      For translation projects, the SAP Translation Hub might also be an option to look into.


      • Hi Joerg,

        Thank you for confirming that STERM is still there.

        Thank you also for the SAP Translation Hub pointer. In our case, I believe that the SAP implementation will be in Spanish (SAP Translation Hub seems to require English as a source language), but it can be a handy resource when the original SAP implementation happens to be in English.


  • Hi guys,
    I have just received 3 blu-rays with S/4HANA 1610

    2 months ago I was able to deploy version 1511 and it is running fine.
    I was using “On-premise Provisioning for SAP Software Appliances” Installation Guide version 1.0 from 2016-01-28 and installation went ok.

    However now I can’t start this new version 1610. It crashes on step ./hdbreg
    Starting service (sapstartsrv)…
    Registering SAP HANA instance failed!
    Cannot start service (sapstartsrv)
    Waiting for sapstartsrv failed: timeout reached (120)

    Is there some other, more recent manual? I can’t find it anywhere…
    Where to seek help?

    • Hi Lukasz
      Looks like there really is a need to update the manual, somehow got lost over the very hectic pre-Christmas weeks.

      Can you give

      /hana/shared/HDB/hdblcm/hdblcm -b --action=register_rename_system --target_password <password> -U USER-ID [-H oldhanahost=newhanahost]--nostart

      a try and report your result here
      Greetings and sorry for the problems

  • Hi Manfred
    In the meantime I have used old admins trick: I've deleted everything and started all over again.
    And it works!

    Now I have fully working on-premise S/4HANA 1610.


  • Hi Joerg,

    We are an SAP Partner and run our demo systems (including S/4HANA 1511) in AWS.  Do you know if we can convert the 30 day free trial through SAP CAL from demand based to 1 year reserve in AWS (after the trial period is over)?


    Alan Nichols



    • Hello Alan,

      Your question has two aspects.

      First of all if you want to keep a trial instance beyond the trial period you will need to bring your own SAP product licenses and to order the SAP CAL subscription package. To check the prerequisites, go to Solutions, select the S/4HANA trial and choose Unlock.

      Regarding converting an on demand AWS instance to a reserved instance, according to it should be purely a billing issue. In any case my recommendation is to discuss this topic directly with AWS.

      Best regards,


  • Hi Joerg,

    Thanks for putting  all solutions together. I am facing another issue.

    When I open Query Browser Fiori tile; open any view, like C_ACTUALCASHFLOWANALYTICS, then click "Open in Design Studio" button, it gave error "Could not instantiate data source "DS_1" for query "2CCACTCASHFLANLYTS""




    • Hi Wei,

      can you replace the port 44301 in the Fiori launchpad with 44300 (leave the rest as is) and try again ?

      Note that some browsers (e.g. Chrome) might give you a security blocker (NET::ERR_CERT_AUTHORITY_INVALID) on port 44300 but on Firefox / W10 it works for me. We need to investigate how to best get around this.


    • Hi Wei,

      We have the same issue, Could you please help me know the solution you used for this ?

      Could not instantiate data source "DS_1" for query "2CCACTCASHFLANLYTS"




    • Pedro,

      I think you do.  Here are two links that may help to provide more information on this topic:






    • Vijay,

      Do you mean that you can’t  register in CAL ?

      Here is a video that will walk you thru the steps.  The version is based on 1511 but the steps are the same as 1610.




  • So this is still called IDES is it not?  Some SAP consultant says IDES, at least the name, has been changed. Is there official SAP announcement on IDES name change?

    • Hi Kyo,

      No this is not IDES as the configured content is mainly based on the SAP Best Practices for SAP S/4HANA (on premise).   It also come with 30 days trial license on SAP CAL which allow accessibility to anyone who is interested to preview the features and functionalities of the Latest S/4 HANA releases.

      You can also order a Blue-ray disk to be sent to you, or download it for installation on your own hardware. The content in this system (1610 Fully Activated Trial System) is extensively documented both with demo scripts and configuration guides.


  • Hi,

    What's the Fiori version, please? If it is not Fiori 2.0, would you know when it will be released?

    Thanks. Best regards,

    Jacques Maeda

    • Hi Jacques,

      yes, the appliance contains Fiori 2.0 (that's the 'blue Fiori theme' incl. overview pages, etc.).

      The technical UI5 release is 1.40.13 (since this one was out when the appliance was released in December 2016). Please keep in mind that this appliance is not continuously updated by SAP but you would need to update your instance to a newer UI5 release if you need this for any reason.



  • Joerg,

    I have created my own instance from the S4 1610 golden solution- fully activated. How do I get FPS 01 applied and other OSS notes?


    Mareike Korn


    • Mareike,

      You should be able to apply OSS note via Tcode SNOTE.  As for the upgrade to SP01,  it is more complicated as the entire Stack has to be upgraded and codes has to be adjusted.  You will need  BASIS expertise for this.


  • Is there a managed list of upcoming future golden solutions being planned, for example a SAP S/4HANA 1610, Fully-Activated Appliance FPS 01 ?



      Hi Mareike and Evan,

      there is no plan for an FPS01 update of the existing appliance at the current point in time but you can update your own instance to FPS01 manually.

      We're currently looking into the plans for future appliance releases, and most probably the next appliance will come with the next major on-premise release of S/4HANA.

      Best, Joerg

  • Hi Joerg,

    Great blog,

    I have a question also. We have set up a trail S4 HANA 1610 system on AmazonWS and trying to connect via SAP Data Service designer ( data store) which is also on AWS (Different host). However we get an error -

    "Please make sure the SAP server is running and the login information is correct (BODI-1111348)".

    We have done the required entries in host files and able to connect S4 HANA from SAP GUI outside AWS also. Do we need to set up VPC or VPN in this scenario to connect S4HANA system ? OR any other missing config ?



    • Hi Nilesh,

      we didn't test this explicitely but it might be a firewall/port issue.

      Can you connect if the DS Designer runs on a local laptop (i.e. not on AWS) ?

      Also, you would need to ensure that the communication ports that are used by DS Designer are opened for inbound traffic into the S/4HANA appliance. You can check the open ports in the instance details in the CAL console under virtual machines (e,g, SAP GUI uses 3200, not sure from the top of my head what is needed for DS Designer).




  • Hi Joerg:

    Great blog and thanks for the overview of CAL.   This looks to be a great option for our customer who would like to do a POC on S/4 HANA combined with SAP S/4 HANA Treasury.  Unfortunately I don't see that the S/4 HANA Treasury solutions are included at this time (S/4 HANA In house cash, S/4 HANA Treasury and Risk Mgt, etc.).  Who can I speak with (US preferably due to time differences) to address my questions on how S?4 HANA in the CAL can integrate with other non CAL software for use during this trial period?  Also, other questions on MS Azure compatibility.


    Marshall Haegley

  • Hi,

    in case this is deployed on AWS, are we allowed and is it technically possible to extend the configuration, e.g. installing additional SAP components, third party products etc?

    Best regards,



    • Hi Stefan,

      technically, you have full access to the SAP infrastructure of the appliance (SAP_ALL in GUI, Linux root, JAVA admin, HANA SYSTEM user...).

      What you are legally allowed to do depends on your license (license keys, maintenance certificates, ...) pretty much like for every on-premise (sandboxing) instance. And this will of course also partially determine/limit what you can technically install on the SAP box (e.g. SAP add-ons...).

      If you want to install 3rd party products on the AWS infrastrcuture (i.e. independent from the SAP stack), please reach out to Amazon.

      Hope that helps a bit.





  • Dear Joerg,

    To install the S4Hana trial version we need to install machine type “standard_h16m” on our Azure platform. Seems we are stuck as that VM is not available in West Europe and we can’t change subscription country. How do we best proceed?

    I found some similar issues via forum link below.

    Kind regards,

    Reinaart Claesen


  • New to this, just couldn't find a straightforward download link for the the on-premise option, every page leads to another then another to bring me back to the first. Could you please provide one?

    • Hello Jan,

      if you want to deploy this fully-activated appliance on your own on-premise hardware, the download process works differently than for non-preconfigured SAP software. Please see the "On-premise download / Blu-Ray shipment":secion in the link collection above.

      The fastest way is to run the hosted version in AWS or Azure (you need to have an account for either one, though) e.g. via the trial (see "30-day trial" section above).

      The video playlists ("In general" section above).show how that works.

      Hope that helps to get you started.

      Best, Joerg

      • Joerg, Thank you.

        I still need a link.

        You mentioned up on the page:

        "Details for option 2 (on-premise installation):

        You can receive the trial appliance for installation on your own on-premise hardware either via download or via shipment of 3 Blu-Ray discs (the appliance size is ~ 100 GB)."

        Could you please point me to where the download link is? Thank you.


          Hi Jan,

          you will get the download link once you have gone through the process as outlined in SAP Notes:

          In essence, you need to open a customer/partner incident. Your license / installation data will be checked and you will get the download link or the physical shipment (you can choose).

          This is necessary since the appliance contains more licenses than just a plain S/4HANA license.



          • Joerg, thank you for the clarification. I'm making my way for the first time through this. Your patience is appreciated.

            I get an authentication request (username & password), which I guess are different than my current account credentials, as they didn't work.

            I'm currently neither a customer nor a partner, do I need to become one to try SAP HANA on-premise? I'll be glad to follow the process, I just need to know what steps I have missed.

            Thank you


          • Hi Jan,

            physical shipment / download is only possible for SAP customers or SAP partners.

            Hence, the option for you would be to use the hosted solution in SAP CAL (via Amazon or MS Azure) since this is possible without an SAP relation as well.



  • Hi Joerg,

    Thanks for the very nice blog.

    Is there any plan to pair this appliance with a Solution Manager 7.20 appliance, both in CAL?

    Best regards




      Hi Jun,

      there is already a combined landscape available. Just search for "Solution Mangager" under Solutions in CAL and you will find 4 different SAP Solution Manager images. The one with the name "SAP Solution Manager 7.2 & Focused Solutions Demo System with SAP S/4HANA" is the combined landscape.

      Best regards,



      • Hi Dominique,

        Thanks a lot for your reply. I already found that appliance, but it's associated with s/4hana 1511 version. I am wondering if there will be a new packaged applicance. Do you have more Information?

        Best regards


    • Hi Wee Seng,

      Yes you can.  This S4HANA system is just like a traditional SAP NetWeaver ABAP system and you can use Software Provisioning Manager which is part of SL Toolset to perform system copy.  See note 2422314  .  You will need SAP BASIS knowledge to do this.


      • Thanks for the reply. I tried backing up the CAL S4 HANA system and performed a system copy onto our on-premise hardware but encountered problems with secure store key. Fiori Launchpad is unable to launch because the target system is not able to decrypt the secure store. Unfortunately, I do not know the original SSFS key or have access to the source CAL system to retrieve the key file anymore. Is there a way around it?

  • Hello.

    I belong to SAP Japan's partner company.

    I confirmed that "S / 4 HANA 1610 FPS 01 Fully-Activated Appliance" requires the following license.

    1.) 7018066 SAP HANA, Runtime edition for Applications & SAP BW - New / Sub
    2.) 7018652 SAP S / 4 HANA Enterprise Management for Professional use
    3.) 7018639 SAP S / 4 HANA Finance for cash management (first 10 units)
    4.) 7018868 SAP BusinessObjects Planning and Consolidation, add-on for S / 4 HANA
    5.) 7018849 SAP Master Data Governance for SAP S / 4 HANA, customers option
    6.) 7018778 SAP S / 4 HANA Advanced Available-to-Promise

    We currently do not use 3, 4, 5 solutions.

    I will ask you a question.

    · If we do not use cash management and BPC, MDG, after 30 days of CAL, can we use without applying these licenses? .

    (Case 1: You do not have to apply a demonstration license to be used inside the company.
    Case 2: You do not have to purchase a license when you POC. )

    · When CM, BPC, MDG are not used, can we turn off the three functions? .

    (If 30 days have elapsed after turning off the 3 functions, do we need those licenses?)


    If we implement new functions other than 1 to 6 licenses, is it possible to apply the license we have?






    • I will add a question.

      Is it possible to apply the partner demo license we have after using CAL solution such as
      "S / 4 HANA 1610 Fully-Activated Appliance" for 30 days? .
      (I've heard that it is possible on the "Demo 21 system")



      • I will add a question.

        "7018066 SAP HANA, Runtime edition for Applications & SAP BW - New / Subsequent" is not included in the partner demonstration license.

        Please tell me the material number of the corresponding demo license.




          • Hi Joerg,

            1. If the customer POCs the CAL "S / 4 HANA 1610 FPS 01 Fully-Activated Appliance", is it necessary to purchase all the licenses 1 to 6 from 31 days later? .
            (Customer does not sign a demonstration license)

            2. Will customers need to purchase these licenses if they do not use cash management, BPC, MDG, after 31 days? .




          • I would like to know the details of the necessary license (hardware key, license agreement) after 31 days.

            Please check the note 2202234.
            If the customer(Not me) POCs with CAL, do I need to purchase these six licenses after 31 days? .
            Or is it only necessary for the customer to register the hardware key?






          • Hi Hiroshi,

            legally, they need valid licenses if they want to use it after 30 days.

            Techincally, the hardware key is sufficient.

            Best, Joerg

          • Hi Joerg,

            Thank you.

            I will check with you.

            3.) 7018639 SAP S / 4 HANA Finance for cash management (first 10 units)

            If you use "S / 4 HANA 1610 FPS 01 Fully-Activated Appliance" of CAL without this license agreement after 31 days, does the customer need to purchase licenses without using cash management? .

            Or does the customer need to buy a license without using cash management?




          • Hello Hiroshi,

            yes, he legally needs licenses (a trial contract would also do). Please see the license overview slide in my blog above.

            In case of further questions, please contact the SAP representative of the customer or your local partner management.


          • Hello Joerg,

            Thank you.

            If the customer turns off customization of cash management by 29th, does the customer need a license after 31st?.




          • Hello Joerg,

            This will be the question of the last question.

            If a partner manually sets up and uses a function that has not been activated by "S / 4 HANA 1610 FPS 01 Fully-Activated Appliance",

            should the partner apply the license of that function he purchased himself? What? .
            (Partner has purchased "SAP Cloud Appliance Library for Partners")


            Best regards,


          • Hi Hiroshi,

            once the instance has been created, it’s in the responsibility of the partner to run it accordingly i.e. also stick to license regularions.

            Since the main use case of the appliance is tiral / sandbox / PoC (and not development/production), in most cases trial/demo licenses should be sufficient,



          • Hi Joerg ,

            I understood "S / 4 HANA 1610 FPS 01 Fully-Activated Appliance".
            I appreciate you For multiple answers from you on the question I asked.

            Thank you!.


            Best regards,


  • Hi Joerg ,


    Thanks for the very nice blog.

    May I ask a question.

    I tried to find S/4 HANA 1610 FPS 01 Fully-Activated Appliance(I heard it was existed before).

    But there is S/4 HANA 1610  Fully-Activated Appliance only(I think it is FPS 00).

    Would you tell me what happened with  FPS 01 and when will it come back.

    Thank you!



    • Hello Zhao,

      there is a temporeary issue with the license key creation for the SAP BusinessObjects component in the appliance. The colleagues are working on it and will set the S/4HANA 1610 FPS01 fully-activated appliance live again in the next 1-2 days.

      Once it has been republished, you can access it  via -> Solutions (search or browse the list).

      Sorry for any inconveniences.




    Dear Joerg,

    Let me ask the question on the figure 4, crossing of 'SAP S/4HANA License' and 'On-premise installation". There is a sentence "Appliance comes with 90-days temporary service".

    Do I get it right that the appliance installed on-premise for no more that 90 days, does not require any license purchase by the Customer?

    I would appreciate your reply.

    Best regards,



      Hello Maciej,

      if a customer/partner orders the appliance for local installation, he has to have a valid S/4 contract with SAP (trial contract is sufficient), otherwise he won't see the download link or get the Blu-Ray disc shipped.



  • Hello:

    Any limitation or restrictions regarding “Data Restore & Recovery” for Fully Activated Appliance (i.e. restoring previous backup)?



  • Hi there

    I am using SAP CAL 1709.

    I Terminated 「SAP NetWeaver 7.50 AS JAVA with Adobe Document Services」.

    But I don't use.

    I bought SAP CAL.
    Does 「SAP NetWeaver 7.50 AS JAVA with Adobe Document Services」
    need for Licese Key set?

    • Hello Hideki,

      not sure if I understood your question, but here's my take 😉 .

      The JAVA server license key will technically expire after 90 days (legally, 30 days is the threshold) and you need to apply a permanent license via the NW administrator cockpit. The Getting Started guide (linked in the CAL console of your instance) has more information.