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Preface

Not so long ago I discovered the “GET_SCREENSHOT” method of class “CL_GUI_FRONTEND_SERVICES”. The method creates an image of your current SAP GUI window in the “Portable Network Graphics” format (shortly called “PNG”). My first thought was: “Great, useful for support teams.” Second thought was: “Support teams would need more information such as transaction code or report name.” Third thought was: Would it be really necessary to have these information in an extra (text) file?” I did a little research and found a workable solution in the PNG format itself. This blog is about my implementation to demonstrate the mentioned solution. Please use it as starting point for your own research and share your ideas and thoughts about if you want.    

Required ressources

  • SAP Netweaver stack (I used SAP Netweaver Trial 7.40 on MaxDB)
  • W3C PNG specification (second edition, all mentioned chapter in this blogs belongs to this document)
  • TweakPNG (freeware for examining and modifying PNG image files)
  • ASCII/Hex-Converter (I used an online converter)
  • IrfanView (freeware image viewer)

Basic idea


The method “GET_SCREENSHOT” will be used to create a PNG image of the current SAP GUI window. PNG images consist of different chunks (cf. chapter 5.3). Each chunk has a chunk type to specify its function (cf. chapter 4.7.2). The chunk type “tEXt” is used to store text strings (cf. chapter 11.3.4.3). Keywords can be used to identify the content of the text string. Here are some useful keywords (cf. 11.3.4.2):


  • Title: short title or caption
  • Author: name of creator
  • Description: more details than in title
  • Creation Time: time of original image creation
  • Comment: miscellaneous comment

A Keyword and his associated text string are called chunk data. Now we have all fundamentals for implementing our own solution.

Source code of demo report

Here is my demo report. Pay attention to the comments and subroutine structure to follow the program flow.

*&———————————————————————*
*& Report  ZMKE_SCREENSHOT_ENHANCE
*&
*&———————————————————————*
*&
*&
*&———————————————————————*

REPORT zmke_screenshot_enhance.

PARAMETERS: pa_kword TYPE text20 AS LISTBOX VISIBLE LENGTH 20 DEFAULT ‘1’,
            pa_txstr TYPE text20.

INITIALIZATION.
   PERFORM initialization.

AT SELECTION-SCREEN OUTPUT.
   PERFORM at_selection_screen_output.

START-OF-SELECTION.
   PERFORM main.

*&———————————————————————*
*&      Form  MAIN
*&———————————————————————*
*       text
*———————————————————————-*
*  –>  p1        text
*  <–  p2        text
*———————————————————————-*
FORM main.

   DATA: lv_subrc TYPE sysubrc,
         lv_image TYPE xstring.

   IF pa_kword IS INITIAL.
     MESSAGE ‘Please choose a keyword.’ TYPE ‘I’.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   IF pa_txstr IS INITIAL.
     MESSAGE ‘Please supply a text string.’ TYPE ‘I’.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   PERFORM screenshot_create
           CHANGING lv_subrc
                    lv_image.

   IF lv_subrc <> 0.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   PERFORM screenshot_enhance
           CHANGING lv_subrc
                    lv_image.

   IF lv_subrc <> 0.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   PERFORM screenshot_download
           USING    lv_image
           CHANGING lv_subrc.

   IF lv_subrc <> 0.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

ENDFORM.                    ” MAIN
*&———————————————————————*
*&      Form  SCREENSHOT_CREATE
*&———————————————————————*
*       text
*———————————————————————-*
*      <–P_LV_SUBRC  text
*———————————————————————-*
FORM screenshot_create CHANGING cv_subrc TYPE sysubrc
                                cv_image TYPE xstring.

   DATA lv_mtype TYPE string.

   CALL METHOD cl_gui_frontend_services=>get_screenshot
     IMPORTING
       mime_type_str        = lv_mtype
       image                = cv_image
     EXCEPTIONS
       access_denied        = 1
       cntl_error           = 2
       error_no_gui         = 3
       not_supported_by_gui = 4
       OTHERS               = 5.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

ENDFORM.                    ” SCREENSHOT_CREATE
*&———————————————————————*
*&      Form  SCREENSHOT_ENHANCE
*&———————————————————————*
*       text
*———————————————————————-*
*      –>P_LV_IMAGE  text
*      <–P_LV_SUBRC  text
*———————————————————————-*
FORM screenshot_enhance CHANGING cv_subrc TYPE sysubrc
                                 cv_image TYPE xstring.

   CONSTANTS: lc_zero  TYPE xstring VALUE ’00’,
              lc_space TYPE xstring VALUE ’20’.

   TYPES: BEGIN OF line,
           text TYPE text132,
          END OF line.

   DATA: lv_chunk  TYPE xstring,
         lv_ileng  TYPE i,
         lv_xleng  TYPE x LENGTH 4,
         lv_icrc   TYPE i,
         lv_xcrc   TYPE x LENGTH 4,
         lt_stext  TYPE TABLE OF line,
         ls_stext  TYPE line,
         lv_search TYPE xstring,
         lv_rest   TYPE REF TO data,
         lv_offset TYPE i,
         lv_kword  TYPE text20.

   FIELD-SYMBOLS <fs_rest> TYPE any.

* choose keyword
   CASE pa_kword.
     WHEN ‘1’.
       lv_kword = ‘Title’.

     WHEN ‘2’.
       lv_kword = ‘Author’.

     WHEN ‘3’.
       lv_kword = ‘Description’.

     WHEN ‘4’.
       lv_kword = ‘Source’.

     WHEN ‘5’.
       lv_kword = ‘Comment’.
   ENDCASE.

* combine chunk type (“tEXt”) and keyword
  CONCATENATE ‘tEXt’ lv_kword INTO ls_stext.

* combine chunk type, keyword and text string
  CONCATENATE ls_stext pa_txstr INTO ls_stext SEPARATED BY space.
  APPEND ls_stext TO lt_stext.

   CALL FUNCTION ‘SCMS_TEXT_TO_XSTRING’
*   EXPORTING
*     FIRST_LINE       = 0
*     LAST_LINE        = 0
*     MIMETYPE         = ‘ ‘
*     ENCODING         =
     IMPORTING
       buffer   = lv_chunk
     TABLES
       text_tab = lt_stext
     EXCEPTIONS
       failed   = 1
       OTHERS   = 2.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

* “Zero Byte” is delimiter between keyword and text string
* (remember: keyword and text string are our “chunk data”)
   REPLACE FIRST OCCURRENCE OF lc_space
           IN lv_chunk
           WITH lc_zero
           IN BYTE MODE.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

* function “SCMS_TEXT_TO_XSTRING” adds a line break at the end
* which has to be removed
   lv_ileng = xstrlen( lv_chunk ) 2.
   lv_chunk = lv_chunk+0(lv_ileng).

* get length of chunk data (ignore chunk type by -4)
   CLEAR lv_ileng.
   lv_ileng = xstrlen( lv_chunk ) 4.
   lv_xleng = lv_ileng.

* generate CRC32 for chunk type and chunk data
   CALL METHOD cl_abap_zip=>crc32
     EXPORTING
       content = lv_chunk
     RECEIVING
       crc32   = lv_icrc.

   lv_xcrc = lv_icrc.

* build complete chunk
   CONCATENATE lv_xleng lv_chunk lv_xcrc INTO lv_chunk IN BYTE MODE.

* place the new chunk before “IEND”-chunk
   CLEAR lt_stext.
   ls_stext = ‘IEND’.
   APPEND ls_stext TO lt_stext.

   CALL FUNCTION ‘SCMS_TEXT_TO_XSTRING’
*   EXPORTING
*     FIRST_LINE       = 0
*     LAST_LINE        = 0
*     MIMETYPE         = ‘ ‘
*     ENCODING         =
     IMPORTING
       buffer   = lv_search
     TABLES
       text_tab = lt_stext
     EXCEPTIONS
       failed   = 1
       OTHERS   = 2.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   lv_search = lv_search+0(4). ” avoid line break

   FIND FIRST OCCURRENCE OF lv_search
        IN cv_image
        IN BYTE MODE
        MATCH OFFSET lv_offset
        MATCH LENGTH lv_ileng.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

* respect length indication befor “IEND”-chunk by -4
   lv_offset = lv_offset 4.
   lv_ileng = xstrlen( cv_image ) lv_offset.

* create variable for the image’s tail
   CREATE DATA lv_rest TYPE x LENGTH lv_ileng.
   ASSIGN lv_rest->* TO <fs_rest>.
   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   <fs_rest> = cv_image+lv_offset(lv_ileng).

   CONCATENATE lv_chunk <fs_rest> INTO lv_chunk IN BYTE MODE.
   REPLACE SECTION OFFSET lv_offset
           OF cv_image
           WITH lv_chunk
           IN BYTE MODE.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

ENDFORM.                    ” SCREENSHOT_ENHANCE
*&———————————————————————*
*&      Form  SCREENSHOT_DOWNLOAD
*&———————————————————————*
*       text
*———————————————————————-*
*      –>P_LV_IMAGE  text
*      <–P_LV_SUBRC  text
*———————————————————————-*
FORM screenshot_download USING    uv_image TYPE xstring
                          CHANGING cv_subrc TYPE sysubrc.

   DATA: lt_bdata  TYPE TABLE OF x,
         lv_title  TYPE string,
         lv_dname  TYPE string,
         lv_fname  TYPE string,
         lv_fpath  TYPE string,
         lv_path   TYPE string,
         lv_usrac  TYPE i,
         lv_filter TYPE string.

   CALL FUNCTION ‘SCMS_XSTRING_TO_BINARY’
     EXPORTING
       buffer     = uv_image
*     APPEND_TO_TABLE = ‘ ‘
*   IMPORTING
*     OUTPUT_LENGTH   =
     TABLES
       binary_tab = lt_bdata.

   IF lt_bdata IS INITIAL.
     cv_subrc = 4.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   lv_title = ‘Download image to …’.
   CONCATENATE sydatum ‘-‘ syuzeit ‘.png’ INTO lv_dname.
   lv_filter = ‘*.png’.

   CALL METHOD cl_gui_frontend_services=>file_save_dialog
     EXPORTING
       window_title         = lv_title
       default_extension    = ‘*.png’
       default_file_name    = lv_dname
*     with_encoding        =
       file_filter          = lv_filter
*     initial_directory    =
*     prompt_on_overwrite  = ‘X’
     CHANGING
       filename             = lv_fname
       path                 = lv_path
       fullpath             = lv_fpath
       user_action          = lv_usrac
*     file_encoding        =
     EXCEPTIONS
       cntl_error           = 1
       error_no_gui         = 2
       not_supported_by_gui = 3
       OTHERS               = 4.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   IF lv_usrac = cl_gui_frontend_services=>action_cancel.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

   CALL METHOD cl_gui_frontend_services=>gui_download
     EXPORTING
*     BIN_FILESIZE            =
       filename                = lv_fname
       filetype                = ‘BIN’
*     APPEND                  = SPACE
*     WRITE_FIELD_SEPARATOR   = SPACE
*     HEADER                  = ’00’
*     TRUNC_TRAILING_BLANKS   = SPACE
*     WRITE_LF                = ‘X’
*     COL_SELECT              = SPACE
*     COL_SELECT_MASK         = SPACE
*     DAT_MODE                = SPACE
*     CONFIRM_OVERWRITE       = SPACE
*     NO_AUTH_CHECK           = SPACE
*     CODEPAGE                = SPACE
*     IGNORE_CERR             = ABAP_TRUE
*     REPLACEMENT             = ‘#’
*     WRITE_BOM               = SPACE
*     TRUNC_TRAILING_BLANKS_EOL = ‘X’
*     WK1_N_FORMAT            = SPACE
*     WK1_N_SIZE              = SPACE
*     WK1_T_FORMAT            = SPACE
*     WK1_T_SIZE              = SPACE
*     SHOW_TRANSFER_STATUS    = ‘X’
*     FIELDNAMES              =
*     WRITE_LF_AFTER_LAST_LINE  = ‘X’
*     VIRUS_SCAN_PROFILE      = ‘/SCET/GUI_DOWNLOAD’
*    IMPORTING
*     FILELENGTH              =
     CHANGING
       data_tab                = lt_bdata
     EXCEPTIONS
       file_write_error        = 1
       no_batch                = 2
       gui_refuse_filetransfer = 3
       invalid_type            = 4
       no_authority            = 5
       unknown_error           = 6
       header_not_allowed      = 7
       separator_not_allowed   = 8
       filesize_not_allowed    = 9
       header_too_long         = 10
       dp_error_create         = 11
       dp_error_send           = 12
       dp_error_write          = 13
       unknown_dp_error        = 14
       access_denied           = 15
       dp_out_of_memory        = 16
       disk_full               = 17
       dp_timeout              = 18
       file_not_found          = 19
       dataprovider_exception  = 20
       control_flush_error     = 21
       not_supported_by_gui    = 22
       error_no_gui            = 23
       OTHERS                  = 24.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     cv_subrc = sysubrc.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

ENDFORM.                    ” SCREENSHOT_DOWNLOAD
*&———————————————————————*
*&      Form  AT_SELECTION_SCREEN_OUTPUT
*&———————————————————————*
*       text
*———————————————————————-*
*  –>  p1        text
*  <–  p2        text
*———————————————————————-*
FORM at_selection_screen_output.

   DATA: ls_values TYPE vrm_value,
         lt_values TYPE vrm_values.

   ls_valueskey  = ‘1’.
   ls_valuestext = ‘Title’.
   APPEND ls_values TO lt_values.

   ls_valueskey  = ‘2’.
   ls_valuestext = ‘Author’.
   APPEND ls_values TO lt_values.

   ls_valueskey  = ‘3’.
   ls_valuestext = ‘Description’.
   APPEND ls_values TO lt_values.

   ls_valueskey  = ‘4’.
   ls_valuestext = ‘Source’.
   APPEND ls_values TO lt_values.

   ls_valueskey  = ‘5’.
   ls_valuestext = ‘Comment’.
   APPEND ls_values TO lt_values.

   CALL FUNCTION ‘VRM_SET_VALUES’
     EXPORTING
       id              = ‘PA_KWORD’
       values          = lt_values
     EXCEPTIONS
       id_illegal_name = 1
       OTHERS          = 2.

   IF sysubrc <> 0.
     RETURN.
   ENDIF.

ENDFORM.                    ” AT_SELECTION_SCREEN_OUTPUT
*&———————————————————————*
*&      Form  INITIALIZATION
*&———————————————————————*
*       text
*———————————————————————-*
*  –>  p1        text
*  <–  p2        text
*———————————————————————-*
FORM initialization.

   pa_txstr = ‘Hello World!’.

ENDFORM.                    ” INITIALIZATION



Example


For our example we us “Title” as keyword and “Hello World!” as text string.

Step Description
1 We get a screenshot of our current SAP GUI window.
2

We combine chunk type, keyword and our text string.

Result: “tEXtTitle Hello World!”

3

We convert it to hex and place the “Zero Byte” delimiter between keyword and text string (in hex it’s “00”).

Result: “744558745469746C650048656C6C6F20576F726C6421”

  • “74455874” corresponds to “tEXt”,
  • “5469746C65” corresponds to “Title”
  • “00” is a zero byte
  • “48656C6C6F20576F726C6421” corresponds to “Hello World!”
4

We get the length of the chunk data (that are keyword and text string).

Result: 18 bytes

5

We generate a CRC32 for chunk type and chunk data.

Result: “1373921944” (in hex it is “51E46298”)

6

We build the complete chunk. It consists of length, chunk type, chunk data and CRC32.

Result “00000012744558745469746C650048656C6C6F20576F726C642151E46298”

7 We place our tEXt-chunk before the IEND-chunk.
8 We download our enhanced screenshot to desktop.


After downloading the image to your desktop, you can use IrfanView for displaying.

Demo.jpg

Have a look at the function “View->Show HEX view” of IrfanView.

HexView.jpg

With TweakPNG you can have a look at the different chunks. You will find our tEXt-chunk “Title” with the corresponding text string “Hello World!”.

TweakPNG.jpg



Idea for practical use


It’s just an idea and not a well proofed business case: Create your own generic object service to get a screenshot of the current SAP GUI window. Analyze the business context (given business object type and id, sy-structure, callstack and more – perhaps I will show that in another blog) and encode the gathered data into the PNG image as shown above. Download the image to the user’s desktop so he can mail it to his support team. Support team of course would need a tool to show the PNG image and decode all tEXt chunks in it. Even if the user puts no additional information in his mail there are some helpful business context information in the image. As I said before just an idea …

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2 Comments

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  1. Alexey Telitsyn

    Michael, thanks for a good idea!

    It would be great if it will be standard SAP GUI functionality 🙂 , in my case as a tester it useful to have an ability fast creation of such kind of “smart” screenshots when I describe an issue.

    Thanks! 

    (0) 
    1. Michael Keller Post author

      Hi Alexey,

      thanks for your comment. The term “smart screenshot” is great, I like it 🙂

      There are so much possibilities to improve the collaboration of users within the system. If enough SCN members would be interested in and would find it useful for their daily work perhaps we can develop a basic solution for everyone. In this case please contact me.

      Kind regards

      Michael

      (0) 

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