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Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle

ABAP to the future – my version of the BOPF chapters – Part 4: Determinations and general architectural aspects

8.2.5 Determinations

Up to now, we’ve been interacting with a Business Object solely as a consumer. It’s now time to move to the other side and provide some business logic.

We already know associations and nodes as the entities of the static behavior. Expressed in UML, Nodes are classifiers (such as classes in ABAP OO) and as such, they are also the anchor for behavior: While object oriented languages differentiate behavior based on their visibility (private, protected, public methods), BOPF also differentiates semantically (determinations, actions, validations). What this all is and how this relates to known concepts, we’ll look at in a practical example starting with determinations.

Determinations are implicitly executed data manipulation which the framework triggers on a modeled interaction with a business object. They can’t be explicitly invoked by a consumer and thus are comparable to non-public methods in a UML class model which are executed as some kind of side-effect. This side-effect should somehow be relevant to business logic (and not solely be derived in order to be presented on a UI). Whether the result is persisted or only transiently available until the end of the transaction does not matter to how the business logic is implemented.

The most important and sometime tricky decision you need to make is to which node the determination shall be assigned to. The answer is simple remembering that a BO node corresponds to a UML class: At the node which represents the entity at which you would implement the private method in a domain model. Well, this might not have helped you much if you’ve been more focused on coding instead of modeling yet, but I hope the next hint should help you more: At runtime, the instances of the assigned node are passed into the determination. So usually it makes sense to assign the determination at the node where the attributes reside which are going to be manipulated by the determination. Or more general: Choose the assigned node as the topmost node from which all information required within the determination is reachable. A sample further down should explain this aspect easily.


Figure 32 – Creating a determination. Note the link to the System-Help!

Three aspects are relevant to determinations:

  • Which interaction makes the system trigger
  • What business logic and
  • When this logic is being executed.

While the “what” is being coded in ABAP as a class implementing a determination interface, trigger and execution time can be modeled.

Triggers can be any of the CRUD-services which are requested at a BO node. A trigger for a determination can also be a CRUD-operation on a node which is associated to the assigned node (e. g. a subnode).

In order to understand the options for the execution time it is essential to understand the phase-model of a BOPF-transaction and this would be a chapter on its own. Anyway, only set of combinations of triggers and execution times makes sense and SAP has thus enhanced the determination creation wizard (compared to the previous releases and the full-blown BOBF modeling environment): The wizard in the BO builder (transaction BOB) offers a selection of usecases for a determination. In the BOBX trigger and determination time can be modeled explicitly. We’ll focus on the patterns offered in BOPF as they provide the meaningful combinations of trigger and execution time.

Derive dependent data immediately after modification

Trigger: Create, update, delete of a node; execution time: “after modify”. Immediately after the interaction (during the roundtrip), the determination shall run. This is by far the most often required behavior. Even if no consumer might currently request this attribute (e. g. as it’s not shown on the UI), most calculated attributes shall be derived immediately, as other transactional behavior might depend on the calculation’s result.

The following screenshots illustrate the chosen triggers and time points for this type of determinations.


Figure 33 – The most common usecase: A determination derives persistent data after modification


Figure 34 – Trigger usually is the create and update of the node. Delete is usually not necessary, as on delete, there would be no basis for the derivation anymore.


Figure 35 – The derivaiton shall be performed immediately after modifying the request-nodes (triggers)

Derive dependent data before saving

Trigger: Create, update, delete of a node; execution time: “before save (finalize)”. Each modification updates the current image of the data. However not all of these changes which might represent an intermediate state need to trigger a determination, but only the (consistent) state before saving is relevant to the business. Popular samples are the derivation of the last user who changed the instance, the expensive creation of a build (e. g. resolving a piece-list) or the interaction with a remote system.

The configuration is the same as the same as the previous one except that it’s triggered “before save (finalize)” instead of “after modify”.

Fill transient attributes of persistent nodes

Trigger: Load, create, update of a node; execution times: “after loading” and “after modify”. Transient attributes need to be updated once the basis for the calculation changes as well as when reading the instance for the first time.

Assuming that the head-count of the monster was not persisted but would be always derived on the fly, the determination configuration would look like this:


Figure 36 – By modelling the determination as transient, BOPF will not lock the node instance.


Figure 37 – As the implementation is based on the existence of the subnode “head”, the trigger needs to be the create and delete of the subnode. In addition to that, loading the root-node needs to trigger the determination for the first time.


Figure 38 – Transient determinations need to be triggered on the first loading and usually after something has changed again

Please note: Transient data in a BO node should be relevant to a business process. Texts are not. Deriving texts (such as it’s done in A2ttF) should not be part of the model. However, you could of course derive a classification (A/B/C-Monsters) based on some funky statistical function of the current monster-base or from a ruleset. The texts (“A” := “very scary monster”) should be added on the UI layer. Other samples for transient determinations which I have seen in real life: Totals, Count of subnodes, converted currencies, age (derived from a key-date, temporal information is tricky to persist, serialized form of other node-attribute.

In (almost) every case, you could as well persist the attribute instead of calculating it on request. In many cases, a node attribute which was transient in the first step got persisted after some time (due to performance or since some user wanted to search for it). In this case, you simply need to change the configuration of the determination to “Derive dependent data immediately after modification”, but not change the implementation!   

Create properties

Trigger: The core-service “retrieve_properties” on the assigned node; execution time “before retrieve”. Properties are bits (literally) of information which inform the consumer which interactions with parts of the instance are possible (see next chapter 8.2.6) – if the consumer wants to know that! One usecase of properties is to mark node attributes as disabled, read-only or mandatory. But also actions can carry properties about being enabled or not.


Figure 39 – Property-determinations are always transient


Figure 40 – The trigger is always the (retrieve) on the technical _PROPERTY-subnode


Figure 41 – Before retrieving this node, the determination calculates the node instances

Derive instance of transient node

Trigger: The resolution of an association to the assigned node. Execution time: “before retrieve”. In BOPF it is also possible to create nodes which are fully transient – including their KEY. If a node is modeled as transient, this determination pattern is getting selectable. The implementation has to ensure that the KEY for the same instance is stable within the session. As this is a quite rare-usecase, I’ll not go into the details about it (we might have a sample in the actions chapter later on).

Determination dependencies are the only way to control in which order determinations are being executed in. If one determination depends on the result of a second one, the second determination is a predecessor of the first one. If you need lots of determination dependencies, this is an indicator for a flaw in either the determination- or the BO-design: This brings us to another question: What shall be the scope of a determination? There might be different responses to this question. I prefer to have one determination per isolated business aspect. If you for example derive a hat-size-code and a scariness-classification, they are semantically not interfering. Thus, I advise to create two determinations in this case, even if both are assigned to the same node, have got the same triggers and the same timepoint (after modify). You could argue that then, two times the same data (monster header) is being retrieved (in each of the determinations), but the second data retrieval will hit the buffer and thus has very limited impact on performance. The benefits are – imho – much bigger: Your model will be easier to read and to maintain (many small chunks which can also be unit-tested more easily). Also, it might be the case that throughout the lifecycle of your product, one aspect of the business logic changes and makes new triggers necessary (e. g. the scariness could be influenced by the existence of a head with multiple mouths in future). If you don’t separate the logic, your additional trigger would also make the business logic execute which is actually independent of it. I our sample, the determination of the scariness would have to be executed on CUD of a HEAD-instance while the hat-size-code still depends on changes of the ROOT.

Alright, with all this being said/written, let’s have a look at how to actually implement a determination. As we are getting close to the code, I will have to comment on the samples and advice given in the book. One major benefit using BOPF is that these styles are getting more and more alike since there are some patterns / commands which just make sense while others don’t 😉

     Excursus: Dependency inversion and the place for everything

In A2tF, the determination chapter also includes an architectural advice about providing a technology independent implementation of business logic. I don’t agree with the advice given there and wanted to explain why I believe that the BOPF-pattern to delegate to classes implementing a dedicated interface actually fulfills the requirements of loose coupling better than utilizing a “model class”.

First of all, I would like to address an aspect which Paul also pointed out (and which consists of two parts. “This example is a testimony to the phrase ‘A place for everything and everything in its place.’ Instead of lumping everything in one class, it’s better to have multiple independent units”. I could not more agree to that – and I could not contradict more to his conclusion drawn: “For that reason, this example keeps the determination logic in the model class itself and that logic gets called by the determination class”. With a BOPF model in place, this model is becoming “the place for everything”.
Even if the (BOPF BO) model is not represented by one big class-artifact or an instantiated domain-class at runtime, this model exists. I don’t think that when you model your business in BOPF, you are getting stuck on the current stack: The BOPF designtime is the tool with which this model is technically described, but the model exists also without BOPF. In natural language, I can easily describe aspects of my model as well: “As soon as the hat-size of my monster changes, I want to calculate the hat-size-code”. Having a determination after modify with trigger CUD on the ROOT of monster is only a structurally documented form. As thereis also an interface for reading this model, you can even think of compiling some other languages’ code based on the model.

Whatever technical representation you are choosing for your model (BOPF BO-model, GENIL-component-representation or a plain ABAP domain class), it’s good style not to implement all behavior only in one single artifact (e. g. in methods of a class). Let’s stick to the sample of the two derivations given. In a plain ABAP-class, you could have methods defined similar to this:

     METHOD derive_after_root_modification.

          me->derive_hat_size( ).

          me->classify_scariness( ).

         ENDMETHOD. “derive_after_root_modification.

This is the straight-forward-approach, but ill will become clumsy as your models grow. Also, re-use is limited with respect to applying OO-patterns and techniques on the behavioral methods (e. g. using inheritance in order to reduce redundancy). Thus, I like the composite-pattern with which we’ll create small classes implementing the same interface:

INTERFACE zif_monster_derivation.

METHODS derive_dependent_stuff
      io_monster TYPE zcl_monster.


METHOD derive_after_root_modification.

DATA lt_derivation TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF REF TO zif_monster_derivation WITH DEFAULT KEY.

INSERT NEW zcl_monster_hat_size_derivation INTO TABLE lt_derivation.

INSERT NEW zcl_monster_scariness_derivation INTO TABLE lt_derivation.

LOOP AT lt_derivation INTO DATA( lo_derivation ).



     ENDMETHOD. “derive_after_root_modification.

Having applied this pattern, you are much more flexible when adding new business logic (or when deciding to execute the same logic at multiple points in time, for example). And you are much closer to the implementation pattern chosen in BOPF. The only difference being that you don’t need the model class (as I wrote previously). The instantiation of the framework for your BO at runtime will do exactly the same job.

So what about dependency inversion and the flexibility of your code if BOPF is not state-of-the-art anymore? It’s all in place already. Let’s have a look at the following sample implementation of the hat-size-derivation:

CLASS zcl_monster_hat_size_derivation DEFINTION.



METHODS get_hat_size_code

IMPORTING iv_hat_size             TYPE zmonster_hat_size

RETURNING VALUE(rv_hat_size_code) TYPE zmonster_hat_size_code.



METHOD get_hat_size_code.

* We classify the hat size. The hat size code is getting translated to its code-values by the UI-layer

* (If for example you use a drop-down-list-box in the FPM, the UI
* will automatically translate the code to its text if the domain is
* properly maintained with either fixed values or a value- and text-table).

    IF iv_hat_size > 100.

      rv_hat_size_code = zif_monster_constants=>headhat_size_codevery_big_hat.

    ELSEIF iv_hat_size > 50.

      rv_hat_size_code = zif_monster_constants=>headhat_size_codebig_hat.

    ELSEIF iv_hat_size < 10.

      rv_hat_size_code = zif_monster_constants=>headhat_size_codesmall_hat.


      rv_hat_size_code = zif_monster_constants=>headhat_size_codenormal_hat.



Let’s see how this technology-independent business logic is getting integrated into the BOPF interface methods.



                iv_node = zif_monster_c=>sc_node-head
                it_key = it_key
                it_requested_attributes = value #( ( zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attribute-head-hat_size ) )
                et_data = lt_head ).

       LOOP AT lt_head REFERENCE INTO DATA(lr_head).

* Here comes the actual business logic
lr_head->hat_size_code = me->get_hat_size_code( lr_head->hat_size ).



               iv_node = zif_monster_c=>sc_node-head

               iv_key = lr_head->key
               is_data = lr_head
               it_changed_attributes = value #( ( zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attribute-head-hat_size_code ) ) ).



Note that the signature of the actual business logic (get_hat_size) is absolutely independent of BOPF. The determination class simply offers an interface (literally) to the framework. If you switched to another framework, you could implement asecond interface in which method implementation you also call the “business logic”.

I sincerely hope I could address the concerns I’ve got about using a model class and that you also come to the conclusion, that with many atomic classes in place and the BOPF model described in the system, there is no need for a model-class. Why I’m so opposite to such an entity is a major flaw in the way this is usually being used and which brings a terrifying performance penalty. We’ll come to that in the next paragraphs.

The determination interface methods

Paul has explained the purposes of the interface methods nicely in A2tF. You can also have a look at the interface-documentation in your system.

Above I wrote that with BOPF in place, the implementations are getting harmonized within a development team. I would therefore like to explain the basic skeletons and DOs and DON’Ts within the implementation of those methods.

Checking for relevant changes

METHOD /bobf/if_frw_determination~check_delta.

* First, compare the previous and the current (image-to-be) of the instances which have changed.

* Note that this is a comparatively expensive operation.



      iv_node_key = zif_monster_c=>sc_nodehead

      it_key = ct_key

      iv_fill_attributes = abap_true

IMPORTING eo_change = DATA(lo_change) ).

* IF lo_change->has_changes = abap_true. … This is unnecessary, as we’ll get only instances passed in ct_key which have changed.

* io_read->retrieve( … ) … this is usually not necessary in check_delta, as we’re only looking for the change, not for the current values (this, we’ll do in “check”)

lo_change->get_changes( IMPORTING et_change = DATA(lt_change) ).

    LOOP AT ct_key INTO DATA(ls_key).

* Usually the last step in check and check-delta: Have a look at all the instances which changed

* and sort those out which don’t have at least one attribute changed upon which our business logic depends on.

* Note, that determinations are mass-enabled. If you see INDEX 1 somewhere in the code, this is most probably

* a severe error or at least performance penalty!

      READ TABLE lt_change ASSIGNING FIELD-SYMBOL(<ls_instance_changes>)
           WITH KEY

                         node_key = zif_monster_c=>sc_nodehead

                         key = ls_keykey.

      CHECK <ls_instance_changes>-change_mode = /bobf/if_frw_c=>sc_modify_update.

      “Also creates might trigger the determination! But this is not relevant for check_delta

* CHECK sysubrc = 0. “This is not necessary as the instance got passed to the determination

      “as it has changed (assuming that the trigger was the assigned node of course).

      “If you want to program so defensively that you don’t trust the framework fulfilling

      “its own contract, use ASSERT sysubrc = 0.


     READ TABLE <ls_instance_changes>-attributes TRANSPORTING NO FIELDS WITH           KEY table_line = zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attributeheadhat_size.

      IF sysubrc = 0.

* A relevant attribute changed => don’t exclude the instance from being processed



      DELETE ct_key.



Checking for relevant values

METHOD /bobf/if_frw_determination~check.

* Get the current state (precisely the target state to which the modification will lead) of all the instances which have changed.

DATA lt_head TYPE zmonster_t_head. “The combined table type of the node to be retrieved



        iv_node                   = zif_monster_c=>sc_nodehead

        it_key                    = ct_key

        it_requested_attributes   = VALUE #( ( zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attributeheadwears_a_hat ) )


        et_data                   = lt_head ).


             hat_size IS INITIAL. “check the content of some attribute of the node which makes the derivation logic unnecessary.

*    You could also very well loop at ct_key, in order to make sure you process every instance.

*    This makes sense if you don’t retrieve all the instances in the first step.

      DELETE ct_key WHERE key = <ls_head>-key. “exclude the instance from further processing



Executing the actual calculation

  METHOD /bobf/if_frw_determination~execute.

    DATA lt_head TYPE zmonster_t_head.



      iv_node                   = zif_monster_c=>sc_nodehead

      it_key                    = it_key

      it_requested_attributes   = VALUE #( ( zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attributeheadhat_size ) )


      et_data                   = lt_head ).

    LOOP AT lt_head REFERENCE INTO DATA(lr_head).

*    The actual business logic resides in a stateless method which is not

*    bound to be used only in the BOPF context

           lr_head->hat_size_code = me->get_hat_size_code( lr_head->hat_size ).


             iv_node             = zif_monster_c=>sc_nodehead

             iv_key              = lr_head->key

             is_data             = lr_head

             it_changed_fields   = VALUE #( ( zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attributeheadhat_size_code ) ) ).



So far, so good. I hope you agree that the command pattern has the benefit of being very verbose in combination with the constant interface. Coding for example

        iv_node             = zif_monster_c=>sc_nodehead

        iv_key              = lr_head->key

        is_data             = lr_head

        it_changed_fields   = VALUE #( ( zif_monster_c=>sc_node_attributeheadhat_size_code ) ) ).

is in my eyes very close to writing a comment “Update the hat-size-code of the monster’s head”.

Architectural aspects

Some final words on why I don’t like to delegate further from a determination class to a model-class. What is so “wrong” about lo_monster_model = zcl_monster_model=>get_instance( ls_monster_header-monster_number)?

There are some things which may happen delegating to an instance of a model-class which absolutely contradict the BOPF architectural paradigms which all arise due to the conflict of a service-layer-pattern used in BOPF (you talk to a service providing the instances you are operating with) versus a domain-model-pattern common in Java and alike (each instance of the class represents an instance of a real-world-object):

  • Own state
    In BOPF, the state is kept in the buffer class of each BO node. This buffer is accessed by the framework. Based on the notifications of this buffer, the transactional changes are calculated and propagated to the consumer. This is not possible if other non-BOPF-buffers exist. But actually, this is the paradigm of a domain-model: Each instance shall hold the state of the real-world-representation. So what to do? Whenever you implement business logic in BOPF, the actual logic needs to be implemented stateless. There must not be any member accessed, neither at a third-party-model-class nor at the determination class itself!
  • Reduction of database access
    Considering the latency of the various memories, DB access is one thing which really kills performance. Thus, BOPF tries to reduce the number of DB interaction: A transparent buffer based on internal tables exists for each node and all interfaces are mass-enabled which allows having a SELECT INTO TABLE instead of a SELECT SINGLE. When using a domain model pattern, the factory needs to provide a mass-enabled method in order to achieve the same (which I have rarely seen). Also, as BOPF has already read the data from the DB, the factory should also allow to instantiate with data (and not only with a key). The code samples in the book also imply, that within the get_instance( monster_number ), a query is being used in order to translate the semantical into the technical key. As the query always disregards the transactional buffer, not only an unnecessary data access is being made: the instance could not be created for a monster which has just been created.
  • Lazy loading
    Usually, if you create a BOPF model, each BO node has its own database table with the technical KEY being the primary key of the database. If this is the case, each node can (and shall) be separately loadable. This means that all subnodes of a node are only being read from the DB if the node is explicitly requested (either by a direct retrieve or most likely with a retrieve by association from the parent node). Using a domain model, you also have to implement this kind of lazy loading which is a bit tricky and honestly, I have not seen in in action properly yet.
  • Mass-enabling
    As written above, BOPF minimizes the number of DB accesses. But also thinking about ABAP, it is optimized for performance. Data redundancy (and copying) is minimized by transporting data references (to the buffer) through the interface-method-signatures. Furthermore, it uses and enforces modern ABAP performance tweaks such as secondary keys on internal tables. Last but not least ABAP can handle internal tables of structured data very well, while the instantiation of ABAP classes is comparatively expensive.
  • Dependency injection
    As you probably noticed, BOPF injects the io_read and io_modify-accessors into the interface-methods. This not only ensures that the proper responsibilities are being adhered to (e. g. a validation, which shall only perform checks does not get a chance to change data, as there’s no io_modify), but it also simplifies mocking when it comes to unit-testing.

I hope you can now share my enthusiasm about the architectural patterns used in BOPF and may understand my skepticism about a “model-class”.

> Find more alternative versions of chapters in my blogs.

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      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      I was not happy with the first version I published. Added a lot of screenshots and more detailed information on how to configure the determinations now.

      Is this helpful to you?

      Author's profile photo Former Member
      Former Member

      Hi Oliver,

      I'm new to BOPF, so I started creating my first BO using the A2tF as a guide. But now after reading you blog, I'm not certain I'm on the right track? Could you please elaborate on your statement "Please note: Transient data in a BO node should be relevant to a business process. Texts are not. Deriving texts (such as it’s done in A2ttF) should not be part of the model."?

      Let's say for instance that I want to add the sales organization to my BO node. In the FBI list I want to display the description of the sales organization instead of the id. So I thought I had to add the description as a transient field and use a determination to fill the description. But now I'm not so sure? Could you give me some advice?

      Thanks in advance.

      Best regards


      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      Dear Liesbeth,

      of course you are on the right track - you are reading both, the book and the blog series 😉

      Texts are "only" needed by a human consuming the application with a UI. E. g. a webservice would not need them. Thus, the text should be derived in the UI-layer. Using FBI, there are multiple options coming to my mind.

      If there is a DDIC-based relation between the fact- and the texttable:

      • Select the Display-Element "Drop-Down-Listbox" in FBI and set it read only. FBI will translate the text automatically and in read mode, it will appear as a plain label.
      • If you need both fields, the code and the value, you can use the modeled FBI view mapping feature:  Enhance the FBI view structure with a string-attribute for the text, switch to the mapping-tab and chose the "code conversion" as mapping operation. In the node-field 1 enter the name of the field containing the code, in the ui-field 1 select the text-field. This way, you kind of get a generically implemented code-free determination on the UI-layer. (it might be the fields are named differently on the UI, I don't have a system at hand right now)

      If there is no DDIC-text-relation, you ca still implement the logic in the FBI layer as part of the FBI mapping. Either implement a custom mapper you enter in the view definition or implement a view exit.

      Hope I could help,


      Author's profile photo Former Member
      Former Member

      Hi Oliver,

      Thanks for your reply!

      I'm not completely convinced that a webservice wouldn't need the texts? It depends on whether the consumer of the webservice knows the definitions in our system or not. For instance a sales organization id or a product id : it only has a meaning in our system, but without the description sales organization 1000 or product XYZ are meaningless to the consumer of the webservice.

      Other than that : I'll certainly try your suggestions. It's nice to know that the DDIC texts/translations can be reused. Thank you for your help!

      Best regards


      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      Dear Liesbeth,

      agreed. But also in this case, I'd expect the texts to be added on the webservice-layer then.



      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      P.s.: also a webservice could consume the adapted model. Whether this was the FBI view or an SADL-entity: It might be a good idea to re-use that as well. In our project, we e. g. use FBI views as source for smartforms.

      Author's profile photo Former Member
      Former Member

      Hi Oliver,

      Ok, thanks for the extra information. I'm certainly going to look into this.

      Best regards


      Author's profile photo Paul Hardy
      Paul Hardy

      Apropos the "horrible, horrible, performance overhead" the "repeated database access" which occurs when getting an instance of ZCL_MONSTER_MODEL which "does not work" before the monster is saved.

      Anybody who buys the book, and indeed, anybody who does not, has free access to the code samples used within the book, by doing  download from the SAP Press site for the book. The result may not be the greatest code the world has ever seen, but at least you can have a look, since about a year ago now.

      This is in lots of ways a good thing, as if there are any syntax errors, or obvious flaws, you can be sure someone will pick up on it and tell me. If it did not compile / work in the first place it is also possible I might have noticed, amazing as that might seem.

      For example if I coded a validation so I could not save a monster with twenty seven heads, and then tested it, and the validation did not work, naturally I would not have noticed.

      Myself and Mr.Oliver disagree about a lot of architectural aspects, this is clear, and whether to have texts for sales organisation in the data model (myself and all the other presenters at SAP TECHED 2015 say yes, Oliver says no, which does not make Oliver wrong, remember everyone used to say the Sun orbited the Earth, but it didn't).

      What I can't let go though is that saying my method which reads a hashed internal table to get an object instance somehow does a database access. It doesn't. The internal table is in memory and the hashed access is on the monster number. How can you look at the code and say this is doing some sort of conversion of the monster number to the GUID? The GUID is not even mentioned.

      I will admit the code is not in the book, there is not room for everything, so we had to cut out basic things like how to code factory methods, but the code remained in the downloadable samples.

      In regard to a factory method not working before saving to the database - if there is a table is in memory, then the read would work. If there is no entry, indeed the monster number is blank, as is usual in the creation phase, then a new instance is created during the factory method. That is fairly common in factory methods as I understand it.

      I will be back regarding the whole model class thing, I am 100% convinced we are all aiming for the same thing, which is keeping the business logic totally divorced from any technical implementation. That way if the whole BOPF framework was removed in a future version - never going to happen, but lets just say, I never thought KNA1 would vanish - the class with the business logic would not need changing at all, as all it knows about is interfaces to classes which know technically how to do whatever task it is.

      In the second edition of my book the code will be a lot different, naturally, no good programmer is happy with their two years ago code, but I don't think Oliver will be any happier, maybe a lot sadder.

      Cheersy Cheers


      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      Just covering two aspects of your reply quickly, as I really believe it's horrible, horrible, horrible 😉

      • Everyone who believes in UI-relevant information (such as texts) to be included into a model intended to be optimized for processing the business, may do so. I don't think so. It increases run time without adding business value and in fact may differ depending on the client (e. g. expose a field label in short, medium or long form).
      • Honestly, I didn't have a look at the full code yet. But also as per your snippet there are basically two possible implementations of the monster-model-factory. I assumed that it was stateless. That meant an increased number of database accesses. If it's not stateless, but buffers information from the model, it's a violation of the first bopfian law I always teach in my BOPF courses: Thou shalt not other buffers before the BOPF buffer. The reason for that is performance, but also consistency: How do you manage deletions, particularly if they have been done using the published BOPF API (the service manager)? Apart from that: The BOPF buffer does not only - well - buffer data in the memory of the app-server, but also notifies consumers (e. g. the UI) about changes. How would another buffer implement this feature in a wrapper?

      I really really really can't imagine how you'd properly implement a stateful wrapper for the service manager, but only stateless wrappers. With stateless wrappers using single-instance-access, you do have a higher number of data accesses though.



      Author's profile photo Katja Plokhikh
      Katja Plokhikh

      Hi Olivier,

      I have a question about determination. I have a transient determination which sets certain property after cretae to read only.The problem is that read only has to be "on" irrespectivelyly of the value (boolean) of this property. I can't find a solution for this. Would you please help me?

      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      Dear Katja,

      I'm sorry, I don't get the question 🙁
      In general, a property determination runs "before retrieve", which is triggered within the core service retrieve_properties. So not only "after create". Usually, if an attribute has a property read-only already after create, you could model a static property. However, if your BO enforces static properties to be adhered to by the consumer (and you want to pass the value in the create), you might set the property static to read-only, but not final. I don't like it a lot, but this is more convenient than a property determination (and has better performance).
      Let me know if this related to your question or not!


      Author's profile photo Katja Plokhikh
      Katja Plokhikh


      Dear Oliver,

      We've chahged logic of BO, we've come to a decision that it was not the bet solution 🙂 But anyway thank you. I will try to use your advice in my "researches". As I'm new to BOPF, I do some "my tests" just to understand how it works.

      Kind regards,

      Author's profile photo Prasanna CD
      Prasanna CD

      Hi Oliver,

      Nice blog.

      I have a doubt here. What's the difference between action and determination.

      Thanks in advance..

      Author's profile photo Oliver Jaegle
      Oliver Jaegle
      Blog Post Author

      Hi Prasanna,

      an action is modelled, dedicated public interface to functionality. A determination is a side-effect of another interaction of a consumer with the business object.

      Read bot blogposts carefully and check the triggers for actions and determinations, then it should become clear.