ANALYSIS OF CRIME RATES IN INDIA


Increased crime rates play a decisive role in hindering the growth of a nation as a unit, especially in the case of developing countries like India. There is a strong need to monitor and analyse the crimes occurring across the country in addition to regulating them. Though the task of crime regulation is solely under the hands of the government, analysis of the crimes can be carried out in order to derive conclusions and suggest necessary actions and measures extracted from analytical analysis of the data sets available. This method can play a significant role in helping the government in taking better actions for maintaining law and order in the nation.

LUMIRA, a dream child of SAP can turn out to be a more than handy tool to carry out this data analysis and produce results in the form of visualizations and story boards easily understandable to our not so literate politicians who handle the government affairs. Tools like this can play a major role in helping the law and order department to have a clear analysis of crimes and hence take reasoning based actions and measures. Here I provide some of the analysis results of the crime data for Indian sub-continent, a developing nation where crime regulation plays an important role in developing trust among its citizens. A special focus is laid in the study towards CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN to enhance need for better security and dignity of the women and girls in the country.

Data gathered for this report are all collected from the official Government of India website data.gov.in and hence the report can be considered a real environment based analysis. The data set used is made by combining different datasets available at the above site and a final one is created with 64 columns for various forms of crimes and 420 rows with information about the states and the years of 2001 to 2012 during which analysis has been made.

I have used a colour scheme throughout my report which follows the below shown pattern.

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My Story:

  • Board 1. India, traditionally considered to be a land of varied culture and religions and was suitably described by its first Prime Minister as the “Melting Pot”. This board throws a light over the distribution of Riots and communal disharmony across various states in the country and the way it is distributed across different periods of time.As seen from the Geo Choropleth chart, Riots are seen to be maximum in the states of Maharashtra and Bihar, closely followed by Karnataka. On the other hand, using the heat map, the number of riot cases registered is seen to be maximum during the years of 2001 and 2012 though it had a drop in the intermediate years. Controls can be used to analyze similar statistics to concentrate on individual states. Thus special action forces can be set up in the red alert states to bring up communal harmony in the country.

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  • Board 2. Poverty, is one of the major problems faced by India right from the time it got its independence in 1947. Poverty and greed has contributed towards the increase in crimes like Dacoity, Theft, Robbery and Burglary. This form of crime is less of region independent and is more dependent on the thinking patterns and needs of the people,committing such crimes. Analysis is done using combined line chart with two axes in addition to line chart with two axis. Though Dacoity and Burglary have reduced over years, Theft and Robbery have increased, which clearly shows that the type of crimes committed have changed and there is no actual reduction.

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  • Board 3. As the nation progresses more and more towards development, more and more new forms and creative forms of crime emerge. Prominent among them are cyber crimes, cheating, auto theft etc. The funnel chart analysis throws light over the pattern of increase in auto theft and line chart similarly for cheating cases over the years. The law and order enforcement department also needs to change with the changing environment to tackle these new forms of crimes. But remember “Until and unless you wake up, people are always there to cheat you”

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  • Board 4. Next analysis is on the murders whose cause can be varied ranging from innocence to money, hatred etc. Murders can be considered as a sever crime punishment for which can go up to death sentences. Hence the judiciary needs to analyse these cases with utmost concern. Also on the point of government, it is necessary to regulate such crimes since it creates an atmosphere of fear among the citizens. The state of Uttar Pradesh is found to have high murder rates and attempt to murder rates, indicating immediate need to increase the law enforcement.  Attempts to murder should be handled with due importance to prevent the rise in murder rate. States of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh needs to concentrate on this fact. Year wise analysis can be done using the controls section. Also analysis and a prediction of Murder occurrence is done for each state by defining a new measure. This measure takes into account the attempts made to murder and the murder cases reported. Assam and Meghalaya seem to have such high probability.

      Murder + attempt = {MURDER} + {ATTEMPT TO MURDER};

      Murder Probability= {MURDER} * 100 / {murder+attempt}

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  • Board 5. Homicide is a word frequently used in American English. It refers to the killing of one human being by another. The killing may be accidental or may not be with criminal intent or may be for self-defence. India has seen a constant rate of 1 homicide for every 10 murders over the years concluded using combined line chart with two axes. On the other hand, deaths caused by negligence are on a constant rise over the years and is analysed using a Table.

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  • Board 6. Next we switch over to the most important and highly unacceptable crime of all, i.e. CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN. In a country like India progressing constantly towards development, safety and rights of women play a major role in developing the trust of citizens and the way country is projected in front of the entire world. However, in the resent past there is an acute rise in the crimes against women, particularly RAPE cases. Analysis using Radar charts indicates that the maximum number of cases were reported during the year of 2012 and also has been seeing a constant rise from 2001. Analysis of the same data using a Heat map shows that rape cases are widely reported in the state of Madhya Pradesh, sounding an alarm to the state government for appropriate actions.

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  • Board 7. This slide throws light over an important but often overlooked statistic. The slide can turn out to be an effective proof to argue that a women faces more of a danger from her husband and his relatives than what she faces from the outside world. The 3D column chart and the combined column charts indicate that, though over the years the number of Rape cases reported has stood almost constant, the cases under cruelty by husband and his relatives is on a constant rise and is quite large in number compared to rape cases, proving once again that there is more of danger for an Indian women from within than outside.

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  • Board 8. Next a case study is carried out to compare the performance of governments of two states, namely Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal over the period of years. The objective behind selecting these two states is that they lead in numbers in most of the crime forms in the country. It’s clearly conclude able from the slide that there is failure on the part of Uttar Pradesh government in regulating crimes against women from her husband and his relatives. On the other hand, though the government of Uttar Pradesh has failed to bring down the crimes, its work is appreciable in not letting the numbers rise.

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  • Board 9. Kidnapping is a form of crime associated not just with women or girls but in general with the entire society. Kidnapping can be mainly with an aim of holding people as hostages and demanding cash or grants.A striking feature that can be noticed from the analysis of Kidnap data set using stacked column chart reveals that the kidnapping of women and girls is nearly 2-3 times more than the kidnapping of men or boys. Also the rate is on a constant rise every year. Analysis using a box plot shows that the state of Uttar Pradesh has higher kidnap rates.

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  • Board 10.    DOWRY- best described as D-Donkeys O-Of the first order W-Who can’t stand on their feet R-Rely on their wives riches Y-Yet Shameless, is a practice followed in the nation over a long time. Both giving and receiving of dowry is punishable under law. Various laws like Dowry Prohibition Act are passed in the Indian Republic.Analysis of number of Dowry Deaths and the number of cases registered using Area Charts and Parallel Co-ordinates chart reveal that the number of Dowry deaths reported is huge in number when compared to the actual cases registered under the Dowry Prohibition Act. This clearly shows there is a failure on the part of government in implementing the Act.

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  • Board 11.    The other more concerning crime against women is the Immoral trafficking and import of girls and women and their use as anti-social elements. As seen from the Geo Choropleth charts the states in the southern part of the country see a lot of Immoral trafficking happening while the eastern regions are prone to more of Illegal Import of girls. It would, therefore, be meaningful if rehabilitation programs are launched and implementation machinery is set not only to eradicate the fertile source of such crimes but also for successful rehabilitation of the fallen women who are the victims of circumstances to regain their lost respect to the dignity of person to sustain equality of status, economic and their social empowerment.

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  • Board 12.    Another unacceptable form of crime is Custodial Rape. This is a classic example of the Protector turning out to be a predator. Crimes like this, can turn out to be a severe setback to the government. Though the number of such crimes reported is quite low, A lot more are believed to be prevalent in the background. Analysis of the Geo Choropleth graph shows that the governments of Jharkhand and Assam needs to give prime importance in preventing such crimes to the extent possible.

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  • Board 13.    Now switching back to our main topic of crimes in India, the discussion would remain incomplete if a discussion over the condition of prisons and its inmates is overlooked. The convicted and the under trial people are considered to be the major factor of distinction in our study in addition to male and female inmates. The box plot representation of the total number of convicts in a few states along the years show that the prisons of Uttar Pradesh have the maximum number of convicts closely followed by Madhya Pradesh. The combined line chart on the other hand depicts that extent of difference between the male and female inmates at our prisons. As expected, the female inmates are considerably low when compared to male inmates.

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  • Board 14.    The next slide deals with the overall population of prisons which includes both male and female inmates and also both of under trial and convicted ones.The radar chart shows that the state of Uttar Pradesh has a maximum number of inmates in its prison though Madhya Pradesh has a maximum number of inmates who are convicted The Heat map depicts how this population of inmates has increased over the years which is an obvious fact. But surprisingly a fall is seen during the years of 2010 and 2011 where in the number of inmates released might have been more.

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  • Board 15.    Next slide deals with the female inmates in the prisons of India. By fate or by negligence or by the need of situation women too have contributed to the crime rates in India. Analyzing the female inmate population from the combined column line chart shows a steady increase in the inmate population with the inmates under trial out numbering those convicted. The pie with depth chart shows region wise female inmates population with the sector indicating female convicts and the depth indicating the ones under trial.

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Finally, we star down some final conclusions to end up our analysis over the crimes in India.

  • Board 16.    Conclusion 1: Investigation Efficiency

Investigation efficiency is a measure on the part of the government to rate the performance of the home ministry. It is calculated taking into account the total number of crimes in a region and the total number of people behind the bars. A few new measures are created to analyze this efficiency

Total All Crimes= {TOTAL IPC CRIMES} + {Total SLL Crimes};

Efficiency= {Grand Total} * 100 / {Total All Crimes}; Grand Total is the total number of inmates.

Analysis of this data using Scatter plot shows that the state of Uttar Pradesh has maximum number of crimes as well as inmates. But in states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and west Bengal the number of crimes is not in perfect coordination with the total inmates in person. All states lying on the 45 degree line can be considered to have optimum ratios.

The Geo Choropleth chart can be used to compare the efficiencies of all the states. Clearly, the state Jharkhand is found to have best Investigation efficiency.

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  • Board 17.    Conclusion 2: Judicial Efficiency

Judicial safety throws light over the judicial system of the state taking into account the number of people under trial and the number of people convicted. Generally as seen from the column chart, the number of inmates undergoing trial is quite large compared to the number of inmates convicted. This lays emphasis on the need to fasten up the judicial system to prevent conviction of innocent people.

Judicial efficiency= {Total Convicts} * 100 / {Grand Total};

State wise analysis of this efficiency using the Heat map shows that the states of Tripura and Himachal Pradesh have better judicial clearance records.

  /wp-content/uploads/2014/02/s17_389435.png

  • Board 18.    Conclusion 3: Women Safety

Women safety as discussed previously is an important factor in development of trust and confidence among the citizens. Moreover it is a social duty of all citizens to respect and value women. A new measure is created to measure the crimes against Women,

Total against women = {CRUELTY BY HUSBAND OR HIS RELATIVES} + {Immoral Traffic (P) Act} + {ASSAULT ON WOMEN WITH INTENT TO OUTRAGE HER MODESTY} + {DOWRY DEATHS} + {RAPE} + {INSULT TO MODESTY OF WOMEN} + {IMPORTATION OF GIRLS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES} + {Indecent Rep. of Women (P) Act} + {KIDNAPPING AND ABDUCTION OF WOMEN AND GIRLS};

A column chart is used to describe the rate of increase of crimes against women and a geo Choropleth chart is shown to map the distribution of crimes against women across the nation. The states of Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are seen to have reported maximum number of crimes against women. Violence against women is an everyday reality, act now, always, and forever before its too late.

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  • Board 19.    Conclusion 4: Overall Safety

Overall safety takes into consideration only few forms of crimes and also there severity and hence finding an alert factor to indicate the danger levels in the state.

Alert factor num= {MURDER} * 5 + {RAPE} * 5 + {Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Act} * 3 + {DOWRY DEATHS} * 3;

This safety factor is measured in terms of only severe life threatening crimes and on analysis from the geo Choropleth chart reveals that Uttar Pradesh as the most unsafe region, followed by Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.

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  • Board 20.    Conclusion5 : States of Concern

Finally a tag cloud representation is used to provide an rough idea to the central government about the states it needs to concentrate over in order to achieve an enhanced security in the nation. Tag cloud construction is done based on the alert factor number as well as the total crimes against women.

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35 Comments

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  1. Suseelan Hari

    Hi Nikhil,

    Welcome to SCN Community!

    I understand that you have participated  in university challenge contents that was conducted last year. Is that correct? Good analysis! keep up the good work. 🙂

    Regards,

    Hari Suseelan

    (0) 
    1. Prabhith Prabhakaran

      Hi

      Grea8 work man and extremely wonderful story boards.

      the good thing here is that you have tried to include most of the graph types for your analysis.

      Do we have any info about the scams(at government level) in that website..An analysis into that would be interesting..

      BR

      Prabhith

      (0) 
      1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

        Hi Prabhith,

        You made a valid point.. I never thought about it. Scams are possible at any level. So I guess, the only way to get datasets which are very much close to reality is through RTI (Right To Information) 😛

        Nevertheless, the website has close to 2000+ catalogs, and we can expect some true facts.

        Regards,

        Nikhil

        (0) 
  2. Sheik Bilal Peer Mohammed

    Hello Nikhil,

        Wonderful Analysis and great use of SAP Lumira. This is a great example for using this tool for analyzing good amounts data of public importance. Well done.

    Best Regards,

    Bilal

    (0) 
    1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

      Hi Bilal,

      Thank you.It will be good if our governments form their policies based on facts, and such hidden facts can be discovered using tools like SAP Lumira.  

      Regards,

      Nikhil

      (0) 
  3. Krishna Tangudu

    Wonderful Analysis Nikhil.. Are you working on anyother data set. Can you help me to gather any dataset or subject to perform a similar analysis?

    Regards,

    Krishna Tangudu

    (0) 
    1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

      Hi Krishna,

      I am a bit involved with my university exams. So currently not working on any data sets.

      But I see the site http://data.gov.in very much useful for we Indians to carry out similar analysis of the state of affairs in our country.It will be great if we can collect 3-4 related data sets, merge them to create a bigger one for wider coverage of our analysis

      A few datasets that I plan to work around with in my free time include


      I hope the information provided was useful. The website also has a provision for requesting datasets, if the need arises.

      With Regards,

      Nikhil

      (0) 
            1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

              Thank you Bijan for the above link. I never knew there was a dedicated place from SAP Lumira for finding Data Sets. Its quite useful

              With Regard,

              Nikhil

              (0) 
  4. Sara G Iyer

    Hi Nikhil,

    Great analysis, I had plans to blog on the same topic(more of women and children specific through), was gathering data for the same, but as I was little held up, couldn’t concentrate on it much.

    Nevertheless Am too glad to see this analysis here. I guess it would be helpful if you share the .svid file too here. People can see different visualizations of this data.

    BTW, great Idea,analysis and especially great effort !

    Regards,

    Sara

    (0) 
    1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

      Hi Sara,

      Yes, I very much wanted to share the visualisations here. But facing a few issues in uploading the file to the LUMIRA cloud. Once I sort it out, I shall share the link for the same.

      Regards,

      Nikhil

      (0) 
  5. HIMANSHU GUPTA

    Hi Nikhil,

    It’s very good and your work is very appreciable. Thanks to share the useful link for data analysis for our country..

    Many Thanks / Himanshu Gupta

    (0) 
    1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

      Thank you Himanshu. I guess if I share the cloud link for the visualisations,  It will be even more helpful.I shall do it at the earliest.

      Regards,

      Nikhil

      (0) 
  6. Robin Johri

    Hi Nikhil,

    Great piece of work with Lumira!

    Could you please share the geo data file(latitude/longitude) for Indian states used in this scenario. I would like to create a  similar scenario with Indian States/UT data as my first Lumira exercise.

    Thank you.

    Kind Regards,

    Robin Johri

    (0) 
    1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

      Hi Robin,

      You won’t require a separate geo data file to create geographical hierarchy. You just need to have the names of states and right click on the column and select geographical hierarchy . Lumira tool is intelligent enough to identify the states.

      The following links may help you.

      http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=H7xl5TVCOQM

      http://scn.sap.com/docs/DOC-46620

      http://scn.sap.com/docs/DOC-47234

      In case you require my actual data set used for this visualisations I can provide you with that as well.

      With Regards,

      Nikhil

      (0) 
  7. Kumar ASP

    Hi Nikhil,

    Nice blog.  I am curious to know how you achieved the different color pattern (for the states) in the India map (in the visualization showing Riots in the country).  Where do we set the color options?

    Regards.

    Anjan

    (0) 
    1. Nikhil N Jannu Post author

      Hi Anjan,

      You can do this to set the colour in maps,

      Right click on the map and select “Choose Legend Item Colors ” and then you can easily choose the color of your choice for the different range of values.

      (0) 
  8. Neerja Kulkarni

    I need data sets on rape cases in India from 2000-13 but I’m unable to get real time data please help me and also I wanted to know whether I can take part in Lumira Challenge 2014 now or is it too late?? please suggest me some source where I can get the real time data..Reply soon please…!!

    Thanks and Regards

    Neerja Kulkarni

    (0) 

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