Demand Planning – Data Mart
The data mart setup process consists of the creation of InfoCubes in SAP SCM and the loading of actual and/or planned data.
- Actual data can be used as input for time series forecasting and causal analysis, or for a comparison of the demand plan with actual demand.
- Planned data could consist of forecasts submitted by individuals or departments, such as product line forecasts from sales representatives.
In Demand Planning (DP) and Supply Network Planning (SNP), you can store data in three ways:
· in liveCache time series objects – the data is stored in buckets, with no reference to orders; this storage method is suitable for tactical, aggregated planning (DP)
· in liveCache orders – the data is stored with reference to orders; this storage method is suitable for operative planning, such as in a classical SNP setup
· in an InfoCube – this storage method is suitable for data backups, old planning data, and actual sales history.
Each key figure in a planning area has its own data storage method.
1. Create an InfoArea
- On the SAP Easy Access screen, choose Demand Planning ® Environment ® Data Warehousing Workbench.
In the modeling tree on the left, choose .
Right-click the node on the right and choose Create InfoArea.
Enter a name and a description for the InfoArea and press .
2. Create an InfoCube
An InfoCube consists of several InfoObjects and is structured according to the star schema. This means there is a (large) fact table that contains the key figures for the InfoCube, as well as several (smaller) dimension tables which surround it. The characteristics of the InfoCube are stored in these dimensions.
Select the InfoArea you previously created and choose Create InfoCube from the context menu.
Enter a name and a description for the InfoCube, click Create , select the InfoCube type , and choose Enter.
In the subsequent screen, click for Infoobjects.
You can choose the characteristics from the list of display as above.
Or you can click Dimensions from the right end panel, and right click as above.
Similarly insert the Key figures from the selection.
And for Time Dimension also
Click Activate from the toolbar
3. Define Source System
All systems that provide BI with data are described as source systems. These can be:
- SAP systems
- BI systems
- Flat files for which metadata is maintained manually and transferred to BW using a file
- Database management systems into which data is loaded from a database supported
- by SAP using DB Connect, without using an external extraction program
- Relational or multidimensional sources that are connected to BI using UD Connect
- Web Services that transfer data to BI by means of a push
- Non-SAP systems for which data and metadata is transferred using staging BAPIs.
4. Create an Application Component
5. Create an InfoSource for the Application Component
Transaction Data required is maintained here in this step. Master Data (in the form of Texts, Attributes, and hierarchies) would come from Characteristics.
6. Assign the Source System to the InfoSource
Since fields that logically belong together exist in different source systems, they can be grouped together in a single InfoSource in the BI system by assigning multiple DataSources to one InfoSource.
Define the transfer structure, transfer rules, and communication structure.
· The transfer structure defines how the data is transferred from the data source.
· The communication structure defines how data is imported into the InfoCubes.
7. Create Update Rules for the Infocube.
Update rules specify how data (key figures, time characteristics, characteristics) is updated into the InfoProvider from the communication structure of an InfoSource
Click ‘Activate’ from the Toolbar.
8. Create an InfoPackage.
An InfoPackage contains the following data:
○ When the data is to be uploaded, for instance, immediately or as a background job
○ Details about the external data such as the location of flat files
○ Selection criteria
○ The target InfoCube(s)
In the context menu for the Source System, select
Sample Flow of the Update Process for Delivery & Request:
Loading Data from Infocube to Planning Area (/SAPAPO/TSCUBE):
To access this function, choose Demand Planning → Environment → Load planning area version from the SAP Easy Access menu.
Basic Terminologies used in Business Intelligence
Business Intelligence (BI) – collates and prepares the large set of enterprise data.
- By analyzing the data using BI tools, you can gain insights that support the decision-making process within your company.
- BI makes it possible to quickly create reports about business processes and their results and to analyze and interpret data about customers, suppliers, and internal activities
Architecture of BI
Persistent Staging Area – After it is extracted from source systems, data is transferred to the entry layer of the data warehouse, the persistent staging area (PSA). In this layer, data is stored in the same form as in the source system.
Data warehouse – The result of the first transformations and clean up is saved in the next layer, the data warehouse. This data warehouse layer offers integrated, granular, historic, stable data that acts as the basis for building consistent reporting structures and allows you to react to new requirements with flexibility.
Architected Data Marts – The data warehouse layer provides the most multidimensional analysis structures. These are also called architected data marts. This layer satisfies data analysis requirements. The term “architected“ refers to data marts that are not isolated applications but are based on a universally consistent data model.
Operational Data Store – As well as strategic data analysis, a data warehouse also supports operative data analysis by means of the operational data store. Data can be updated to an operational data store on a continual basis or at short intervals and be read for operative analysis. While the operational data store layer contains all the changes to the data, only the days-end status, for example, is stored in the data warehouse layer.
Data Flow in the Data Warehouse
A DataSource is a set of fields that are used to extract data of a business unit from a source system and transfer it to the entry layer of the BI system or provide it for direct access.
Before data can be processed in BI, it is loaded into the PSA using an InfoPackage.
Using the transformation, data is copied from a source format to a target format in BI. The transformation process thus allows you to consolidate, cleanse, and integrate data.
In the data flow, the transformation replaces the update and transfer rules, including transfer structure maintenance. In the transformation, the fields of a DataSource are also assigned to the InfoObjects of the BI system.
InfoObjects are the smallest units of BI. They are divided into
- characteristics (for example, customers),
- key figures (for example, revenue),
- units (for example, currency, amount unit) and
- time characteristics (for example, fiscal year)
InfoProviders are persistent data repositories that are used in the layer architecture of the Data Warehouse or in views on data. They provide the data for analysis, reporting and planning.
Using an InfoSource, which is optional in the new data flow, you can connect multiple sequential transformations.
Data transfer process (DTP) is used to transfer the data within BI from one persistent object to another object, in accordance with certain transformations and filters.
Open Hub Destination – Object that allows you to distribute data from a BI system to non-SAP data marts, analytical applications, and other applications.