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SunOS is the kernel of the Solaris operating system

There are four types of file systems in Solaris

  1. UFS
  2. ZFS
  3. SAM & QFS

Determine type of file system in Solaris

  • The FS type field in the virtual file system table (the /etc/vfstab file)
  • The /etc/default/fs file for local file systems
  • The /etc/dfs/fstypes file for NFS file systems

Determine SPARC or x86

uname –p

Displays whether the OS is SPARC or x86

usr/sbin/prtconf grep Memory

To Find memory

Directory structure of Solaris

  1. / – Root
    • Every single file and directory starts from the root directory.
    • Only root user has write privilege under this directory.
    • / is also the root account home directory.
  2. /dev – Device files.
    • Contains device files.
    • These include terminal devices, usb, or any device attached to the system.
    • For example: /dev/tty1, /dev/usbmon0
  3. /etc – Configuration files
    • Contains configuration files required by all programs.
    • This also contains startup and shutdown shell scripts used to start/stop individual programs.
    • For example: /etc/services, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/inetd.conf
  4. /home – Home Directories
    • Home directories for all users to store their personal files.
    • For example: /home/john, /home/nikita
  5. /kernel – Kernel Components
    • Contains kernel components common to all platforms within a particular instruction set that are needed for booting the system.
  6. /sbin – System Binaries
    • Just like /bin, /sbin also contains binary executables.
    • But, the commands located under this directory are used typically by system administrator, for system maintenance purpose.
    • For example: fdisk, mount, swapadd
  7. /bin – User Binaries
    • this points to /usr/bin
    • All binaries are located under /usr/bin.
  8. /lib – System Libraries
    • Contains library files that supports the binaries located under /bin and /sbin
    • Library filenames are lib*.so.*
    • For example:,
  9. /mnt – Mount Directory
    • Empty folder generally used for mounting file systems.
  10. /opt – Optional add-on Applications
    • opt stands for optional.
    • Contains add-on applications from individual vendors.
    • add-on applications should be installed under either /opt/ or /opt/ sub-directory.
  11. /platform – Platform Definition files
    • Contains platform definition files.
    • For example: /platform/SUNW,SPARC-Enterprise-T3120, /platform/SUNW,Sun-Blade-T6340
  12. /proc – Process Information
    • Contains information about system process.
    • This is a pseudo filesystem contains information about running process. For example: /proc/{pid} directory contains information about the process with that particular pid.
    • This is a virtual filesystem with text information about system resources. For example: /proc/uptime
  13. /tmp – Temporary files
    • Directory that contains temporary files created by system and users.
    • Files under this directory are deleted when system is rebooted.
  14. /usr – User Programs
    • Contains /usr/bin which is been linked from /bin.
    • Contains certain other links such as spool, news, man, mail.
  15. /var – Variable files
    • var stands for variable files.
    • Content of the files that are expected to grow can be found under this directory.
    • This includes system log files (/var/log); packages and database files (/var/lib); emails (/var/mail); print queues (/var/spool); temp files needed across reboots (/var/tmp);
  16. /vol – Volumes directory
    • Disk volumes mounted under this directory.


cat filename

Join files or display the contents of a file

cd dir

change directory

chmod mode filename

Change security setting on file

chown user [:group] filename

Change owner [and owning group] of file

chgrp group filename

Change owning group of file

cp f1 f2

Copy files

file filename

Determine a file’s type

head filename

Display first 10 lines of file

head –n filename

Displays the first n lines of a file

ls –la   or   ls -ltr

List files and directories

mkdir dir

Create or make a directory

more filename

Display contents of a file by screen full

mv [options] Source target

Move or rename a file or a directory


Print or display current working directory

rm filename

Remove files

rmdir dir

Remove directories

tail filename

Display last 10 lines of file

tail  -n filename

Display first 10 lines of file

tail  -f filename

Display last n lines of line

wc filename

Count lines, words, and characters in a file


Select column of a file for display


A simple and easy to use menu-driven text editor

sort filename

Sort or merge files


A command-driven full-screen text editor popular among professionals


Extended version of grep


Search files for literal words

find path condition

Finds files matching condition from path downloads

find path -inum n

Finds hard links, i.e., All files with the same i-node number

grep pattern filename

Finds line containing pattern in file

grep -v pattern filename

Finds line NOT containing pattern in file

grep  -i pattern filename

Finds all lines containing pattern in file ignoring case


Search files for text pattern


Displays the monthly calendar


Clear the screen


Display today’s time and date


Display information about individual users

ftp hostname

Connects to a remote host to upload and download files


Terminate a running command or a process


Print the content of a file


Display information about a command


Change password


Display processes running on a host


Display iterating list of processes by CPU usage


Interrupt process


Suspend current Process

Kill n

Kill process n

kill -9 n

Terminate process n


Write to others online

telnet hostname [port]

connect to host and opens a shell. Optionally on specified port.


Display who are currently logged in


Display’s the current user

ln file1 name

Create a hard link to file1 called name

ln –s file1 name

Create a soft link to file1 called name

diff f1 f2

Find difference between two files

diff3 f1 f2 f3

Find difference between three files

look word

Searches /usr/dict/words for word

ssh hostname [port]

Makes a secure connection to host and open a shell


Print list of jobs

fg [%n]

Resume foreground job n

bg [%n]

Resume background job n

stop %n

Suspend background job n

kill [%n]

Kill job n


Stop screen scrolling


Resume Screen output

sleep n

Sleep for n seconds


Show environment variables


Create local vriable Variable with value value

export Variable

Make Variable an environmental variable

unset variable

Remove environmental vairables


Show local variables

alias name1 name2

Create command alias


Show command alias

unalias name1

Remove command alias name1


Display recent commands

! n

submit recent command n

set –o vi

Recall commands, edit and re-execute using vi commands

Shell types in Solaris

sh –/bin/sh ,

bash – /bin/bash,

ksh – /bin/ksh,

csh – /bin/csh,

tcsh – /bin/tcsh,

zshell – /bin/zsh

To check shell type in particular host

$ echo $SHELL


Shell Initialization profiles

/etc/profile ($HOME/.profile) —  sh, bash, ksh system wide (per user) init

.profile – Bourne & korn shell

.bash_profile – Bourne Again shell

.login & .cshrc – cshell

.tcshrc & .chrc – TCshell

.zlogin & .zshrc – Z shell

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