Navigating the BOPF: Part 6 – Testing & UI Integration
In my previous blog post, we looked at ways of enhancing business objects (BOs) defined within the BOPF. Once these enhancements are in place, it is a good idea to unit test the changes to make sure that the BO is working correctly. If you subscribe to the test-driven development (TDD) model, then an obvious choice here would be to use the BOPF API to write some ABAP Unit test cases. However, sometimes we just want to run a quick ad hoc test. Or, we might just want to display BO data at a glance without constructing a multi-table join in Transaction SQVI. For these tasks and others, SAP provides us with a very slick tool: the BOPF Test UI. In this final blog post, I will introduce this transaction and demonstrate its basic capabilities. Then, to round things out, I’ll briefly touch on UI integration and the FBI framework.
Working with the BOPF Test UI
We can access the BOPF Test UI by opening up Transaction /BOBF/TEST_UI. When you initially open up the tool, you’ll be presented with a screen like the one shown below. From here, we can begin working with a BO instance by plugging in the BO type in the Select BO input field (either key it in or use the provided input help) and hitting the ENTER key. This causes the BO metadata to be loaded into context so that we can use it to guide ourselves through the editing process.
Editing BO Instances
Once the BO metadata is loaded, we have two choices for maintenance:
- To create a new BO instance, we can double-click on the root node contained in the “Metadata and Instances” tree on the left-hand side of the editor screen and then select the Create button in the toolbar (see below). This will cause a new record to be created and loaded into an editable ALV grid. From here, we can begin filling in node attributes, creating sub-node instances, and so on. Here, I would draw your attention to the Messages panel located in the bottom left-hand corner of the editor. These messages can be used to help you fill in the right data.
- If the BO instance that we want to maintain/display exists already, then we can load it into context using the Load Instances button menu. As you can see in the screenshot below, this menu affords us with several different alternatives for loading node instances: via a BOPF node query, by the node instance key, or by an alternative key (e.g. ID). Regardless of the menu path that we take, the system will attempt to find the target node instance(s) and then load them into the editor window. From here, we can select individual node instances by double-clicking on them in the Metadata and Instances tree located on the left-hand side of the screen.
To edit node instances, we can select the node instance record in the editor on the right-hand side of the screen and choose the appropriate option from the Edit button menu (see below). Then, we can edit attributes for a node instance using the provided input fields. Alternatively, we also have the option of deleting a node instance (or indeed an entire BO instance in the case of a root node instance) by clicking on the Delete Node Instances button.
Regardless of whether or not we’re creating a new BO instance or editing an existing one, the entire scope of our changes is tracked via a BOPF transaction like the one we would create if we were doing all this by hand using the BOPF API. At any point along the way, we can choose to commit the changes using the Save Transaction button, or revert the changes using the Cleanup Transaction button. Then, we can start the process over by selecting another BO instance or editing the existing one in place. All in all, it’s kind of like table maintenance on steroids. But wait, there’s more!
Triggering Actions, Validations, & Determinations
In addition to the basic CRUD operations described earlier, the test UI also provides functions to call actions, validations, and even trigger determinations. For a given node instance, these functions can be accessed in the node instance toolbar via the Check and Actions button menus (see below). If you read through my blog posts related to the BOPF API, then these should feel quite intuitive.
UI Integration and the FBI Framework
Since the focus of this blog series has been primarily on introducing the BOPF framework, I have purposefully avoided digressing into specific applications of the BOPF (e.g. in Transportation Management or EHSM) since these products add additional layers on top of the BOPF that can sort of cloud the picture a bit if you don’t understand core principles of the BOPF itself. However, before I bring this blog series to a close, I would be remiss if I didn’t point out one important (and relatively generic) framework built on top of the BOPF: the Floorplan Manager BOPF Integration (FBI) framework. As the name suggests, this framework links BOs from the BOPF with Web UIs based on the Floorplan Manager (FPM) framework and Web Dynpro ABAP (WDA).
If you’re developing Web UIs on top of BOs from the BOPF, then the FBI is definitely something to take a look at. Essentially, the FBI exploits the genericity of the BOPF API and the accessibility of BO model data to enable the rapid development of Generic User Interface Building Blocks (GUIBBs) based on BO nodes. Here, for example, we could create a form GUIBB that allows users to populate the data for a BO node using a simple input form. In many applications, this can be achieved without having to write a single line of code. While a detailed discussion of the FBI is beyond the scope of this blog series, a quick Google search will lead you to some pretty decent resource materials. If you’re new to FPM, I would also offer a shameless plug for my book Web Dynpro ABAP: The Comprehensive Guide (SAP PRESS, 2012).
When I first started working with the BOPF almost a year ago, I was surprised at how little documentation there was to get started with. So, what you’ve seen in this series is the result of a lot of trial-and-error and lessons learned by debugging past application-specific frameworks into the heart of the BOPF itself. If you’re just getting started with the BOPF, then I hope that you’ll find this series useful to get you up and running. In the coming months and years, I think many more learning resources will materialize to supplement what I’ve offered here. Indeed, the number of new dimension applications based on the BOPF appears to be growing by the day…
One complaint I sometimes hear from other developers is that the BOPF API is cumbersome to work with. On this point, I can agree to a point. However, I would argue that such complexities can be abstracted away pretty easily with a wrapper class or two and some good old fashioned RTTI code. Other than that, once you get used to the BOPF, I think you’ll find that you like it. And this is coming from a developer who has had many bad experiences with BO frameworks (both in and outside SAP…curse you EJBs!!!). All in all though, I have found the BOPF to be very comprehensive and flexible. For me, one of the feel tests I normally conduct to gauge the effectiveness of a framework is to ask myself how often the framework gets in my way: either because it’s too intractible, limited in functionality or whatever. I have yet to run into any such occurrences with the BOPF. It does a good job of providing default behaviors/functionality while at the same time affording you the opportunity to tweak just about everything. For example, if I want to build my own caching mechanism, I can do so by plugging in my own subclass. If I want to pull data from a HANA appliance in real time, I can do so in a determination. You get the idea. It’s all there, so just poke around a bit and I think you’ll find what you need.