Step-by-Step SAP BI Security
SAP BI security is an integral part of any BI implementation. Integrating all the data coming from various source systems and providing the data access based on the user’s role is one of the major concerns of all the BI Projects.
Security of SAP R/3-ECC systems are based on the activities while SAP BI security is focused on what data user can access. Security in BI is categorized by major 2 categories:
Administrative Users – The way we maintain security for administrative users is same as ECC security but we have additional authorization objects in system which are defined only for BI objects.
Reporting Users– We have separate tools(Analysis Authorization) to maintain security for reporting users.
What is Authorization Object?
It allows to check whether a user is allowed to perform a certain action. Actions are defined on the fields, and each field in authorization object should pass the check. We can check all the Standard BI Authorization Objects using tcode SU21 under the Business Warehouse folder:
With the SAP BI 7.0 we have new tool to maintain the reporting level security. We can access this new tool using tcode RSECADMIN which replaces the old RSSM tool of BW 3.x.
## Below are the Step-by-Step instructions to create/maintain authorization objects for SAP BI Reporting:
I am covering the scenario where each employee (Sales Team) is assigned with one territory number, and the data should be accessible to employee based on their territory only. For this scenario to work we have to set security restriction for the corresponding territory InfoObject (ZDWSLTER).
# The first step before we create any Authorization Object is to set all the InfoObjects as authorization relevant for which we want to restrict data access.
Authorization Objects on InfoObject’s of type Characteristic:
# For accessing the new Analysis Authorization tools we use tcode RSECADMIN -> Authorizations Tab -> Maintenance Button
# We can also use tcode RSECAUTH directly to come to maintenance screen:
# We have to give the technical name of the Authorization Object (ZDWKJTEST) then hit the create button:
# The very first step of creating any Authorization Object is to add the special characteristics as field for restirction:
# The below 3 characteristics are mandatory for defining any Authorization Object. If we don’t have this we will get no access to any InforProvider. By default this gives us access to all the InfoProvider(Full Access), but we can also set the value of InfoProvider for which we want the Authorization Object to work.
# Now I am adding the infoobject(ZDWSLTER) for which we want to add restriction:
# We can double click on the newly added infobject, and can define the value which we want to allow for this InfoObject. We can also set the dynamic value using Customer Exit Code which we will cover later in this blog.
# Saving the changes:
Assigning Authorization Objects to Users:
# Go back to previous screen (RSECADMIN) by hitting the back button, and click on assignment button under user tab:
# Now we can assign the created Authorization Object to any user using this tool.
# Adding the created Authorization Object (ZDWKJTEST) to the user ZNBITSRTS. I will be using the same user through out this blog for running any query so that it can use the restrictions which are applying using the Authorization Object.
# We can also assign the authorization to users through role/profile using the standard Authorization Object S_RS_AUTH:
# We can check the Authorization Objects assigned using roles/profile for any user using tcode RSU01 or we can also use the path tcode RSECADMIN->user tab->assignment->user->role-based
# User with Authorization Object 0BI_ALL is having full access to data, and can overwrite any other Authorization Objects assignment to it.
# Query on InfoProvider with Authorization Objects: Below is the test query in which I added the InfoObject for which we created the test Authorization Object (ZDWKJTEST).
# I am running the query with the same user name (ZNBITSRTS) whom we assigned the Authorization Object (ZDWKJTEST).:
# The query output displays the authorization error, and we can check the error log using tcode RSECPROT:
# The below log explains we are missing with some of the characteristics for the created object. Logically we can think that we are only using one characteristic in our query and we did add it in Authorization Object, but why still we are getting Authorization Error? The reason is we always have to add all the authorization relevant InfoObject’s of the InfoProvider on which we created query.
# Now I added all the missing InfoObject’s with full access for the Authorization Object (ZDWKJTEST):
# I have restricted the query with input ready variable on InfoObject territory (ZDWSLTER):
# Running the query with the same territory what I assigned for territory field of Authorization Object:
# The query returns output without any authorization error:
# We can check the log in RSECPROT for the last run of query:
# Running the same query with some different territory number:
# We got the authorization error because of the value which we assigned for the object is not same as what we passed:
# Authorization Variable on Query:
Using the Authorization Variable we can populate the value of InfoObject at run-time directly from the Authorization Object field’s value.
# If we have authorization variable defined for the query and when we run the query it will not prompt us for the variable selection screen & will run the query directly for the value we defined for the field of the Authorization Object.
# Rather than assigning the fixed values in the authorization object, we can also define the technical name of the customer exit variable in the field’s value starting with ‘$’ symbol which will read the value of Authorization at query run-time based on the return value of customer exit code:
# Below is the sample code which reads the territory based on the portal login-id from the reference table which we have in our BI system:
Use of ‘:’ Symbol in Authorization Objects Field’s Value:
# Now I am covering the scenario where query is not using any InfoObject for which we have restriction of values in the Authorization Object. I have added division as object in query which is having full authorization access, and now we don’t have any territory object in query anymore:
# Even though the division object is having full authorization access, still when we run the query we get authorization error:
# By checking authorization log we can clearly see even though the query is not using territory InfoObject it still checks for its value at query runtime because this object is part of InfoProvider on which we have defined the query:
# To avoid the authorization check for the objects which are not being used in the query definition we should always add ‘:’ symbol in the authorization object field value which allows queries to run for all the values of object even if the object is not the part of the query:
# Once we defined ‘:’ now the query works fine (without any authorization failure):
# Below is the authorization log for the same:
Authorization Objects on InfoObject’s of type Key Figure:
# I created one test query with 2 key figures as output.
# Output of query:
# We can restrict this query to show the data only for one key figure. For this we just have to add the required key figure (Record Count – ZDWCOUNT) as value for the field 0TCAKYFNM of our test authorization object (ZDWKJTEST).
# Now if we run the same query it will not show data for any other key figure except the one which we added in the authorization object definition.
# The log also explains the reason of authorization error for 2nd key figure:
Authorization Objects on InfoObject’s of type Hierarchy:
# I assigned brand hierarchy on the same test query:
# When we run the query it shows data for all the data brands as well the not-assigned brands:
# We can restrict the hierarchy using Authorization Object to show data only for 1st Node of above displayed hierarchy:
# Assigned the node:
# Selected the Type of Authorization as ‘1’ which will allow the hierarchy to show all the nodes which are below the selected node:
# After adding the authorization on brand hierarchy now we only see the data for node which we restricted in the hierarchy authorization value: