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This blog will focus on the capabilities of SAP Query (a.k.a. Adhoc Query) and Creating Custom fields in infosets, with emphasis on HR Module.

 

Most of the reporting needs of an organization can be addressed through Adhoc Queries. For some specific requirements we will need custom ABAP reports, and to create custom fields ABAP knowledge is required.

 

First let’s refresh some concepts, processes and transactions involved in the process.

 

Infoset (Tcode: SQ02)

Here we will include all of our tables or infotypes that will provide us data for our queries. If you are trying to create queries in HR Module then it is strongly recommended to use a Logical Database to create your queries, because if you are using HR Tables then joining them will be a problem because of date fields (BEGDA/ENDDA).

 

Logical database will always use inner join and will skip the rows that will not match in corresponding infotypes. For example: You are trying to create a query with Pernr and name from infotype 2 and Work Address from infotype 6. Then the report will not include the persons that do not have a work address. Only employees shown on the report will be those that have a work address subtype of infotype 6 populated. This constraint is usually overlooked and it results in wrong reports.

 

Steps to create a new infoset using logical database PNPCE:

  1. Go to      Transaction SQ02.
  2. Give      Infoset a description, give source of data for infoset i.e. Logical      Database or Tables etc.
  3. If you      have used logical database e.g. PNPCE then a screen will pop-up to select      the infotypes.
    1. Select       the infotypes and continue.
    2. If       you later want to add more infotypes then click on menu item ‘Edit’ ->       ‘Change Info-Type Selection’ and add or remove the infotypes.
  4. If you      have used tables then only give one table name and you will be brought to      the screen where you can add more tables and specify joins between tables.
    1. To       add more tables, click on ‘Join Tables’ and click on ‘Insert Tables’.
    2. You       can drag and drop the matching field from one table to another to specify       joins, you can also change the join type from inner join to outer join.
  5. There      is an area ‘Field Group’ in infoset screen, only the fields that appear      here will be available while creating queries. All fields from infotypes      may not be available in field groups, so you will have to manually drag      and drop them in appropriate field groups.
  6. On the      left hand side, under each node of infotype/table you will see some fields      in blank or blue text color. Blue fields are those that are included in      the infoset and hence available for reporting in SQ01.
  7. Save      and generate your infoset. This is mandatory, as when you generate the      infoset, a program is generated with the code reflecting your changes in      infoset.

 

User Groups (Tcode: SQ03)

Once you have created the infoset you have to assign it to a user group. To create a new user group go to transaction SQ03 and create a new user group and assign users to that user group. If you already have a user group then you do not need to go to SQ03, on the main screen of SQ02 you can click on button ‘Role/User Group Assignment’ to specify the user groups tied to that infoset.

 

Ad-hoc Queries (Tcode: SQ01)

Ad-hoc queries (a.k.a. SAP Queries) are used for reporting off the infoset created in previous steps. So go to transaction SQ01 and create a new query:

  1. Give      name of the query you want to create and hit create button.
  2. You      will be asked the name of the infoset that you want to use.

NOTE: You cannot change the infoset later, so be sure which infoset you want to choose, otherwise you will have to create a new query to choose a different infoset.

  1.  There will be various options on next      screen regarding output format, title etc. which are pretty self      explanatory and we will not go into details of them.
  2. A      faster way will be to click on ‘Basic List’ button.
  3. Expand      the infotype in which you are interested.
  4. You      will see two check boxes in front of each field.
    1. First       box is to display the field on the report.
    2. Second       box is to display the field on the selection screen to restrict the       records based on some criteria.
  5. Fields      will by default have same order in which you select them. It can be      changed visa dragging and dropping on appropriate location in right hand      pane.
  6. Each      infotype will have ‘Additional Fields’ node which contains the texts for      codes like for Position, it will contain a field text:position which will      display the STEXT for that position.
  7. Save      and Run your report.

 

Creating Custom Fields:

Now, we will come back from refreshing memories of creating queries and jump into a little technical area.

 

We can create fields that will fetch data according to out own logic, fields that are not provided by SAP. For that, you will need ABAP access to the system, so if you are working in Production or Quality system then most probably you will not have authorization for that. If you need custom development then best place is the Development environment. We can then either transport the infoset from Development to next systems or we can download and upload it in production (which will again need production system to be opened for some time).

 

To create a custom field:

  1. Go to      your infoset in SQ02 in change mode.
  2. Right      click on the ‘Additional fields’ node of the infotype in which you want to      create the new custom field and click create.
  3. Give      it a name; this will be the name of the field used inside the ABAP code. Select      ‘Additional Field’ and click continue.
  4. On      next screen, provide following information.
    1. Long       Text: This text will appear in the infoset for that field, and inside the       SQ01 query while developing.
    2. Header       text: This text will appear on top of the field as header, when the       report will be in run mode.
    3. Format:       Give the technical information about your field or simply give the LIKE       reference e.g. P0002-VORNA, it will pick up the attributes from that field.
    4. Sequence       of code: This number will be sequence of the code to be executed inside       that field group. E.g. if you have created 5 custom fields and you want       one field’s code to be executed before some other field so that some       variables are set-up then give the appropriate sequence.
  5. Assign      this newly created field to the field group, so that it can be accessed in      reports.
  6. Right      click the newly created field and click ‘Field Code’.
  7. This      is the place where you will put all your code.
  8. If you      have used Logical Database then appropriate structures will be filled in      automatically (e.g. P0002, P0006 etc.) you can use same macros as you will      use in your normal HR Programs.
  9. Once      done with the logic, assign the value to the field name, so that it      appears in the query.
  10. This      code will be executed for each pernr.
  11. Save      and generate the infoset.

 

Tips:

  1. If you      are working on custom fields in infoset and have opened a query in another      session then the changes in custom fields will not be seen in that query.      You need to generate the query again, go to tcode SQ01, select the query,      go to menu option ‘Query -> More Functions -> Generate Program’,      then go out of SQ01 transaction and then come back to SQ01 and select your      query
  2. If you      have changed the data types of custom field in infoset then you need to      ‘Adjust’ the query, it is easy, again come out of SQ01 and then go back,      it will automatically ask for updating the new changes. Click on      ‘Automatically Adjust’ check box next to each field and update the query.      Otherwise you can go to menu option ‘Query -> More Functions ->      Adjust’.

 

Local Fields:

Local Fields are used in queries, if you already have your infoset developed and want to include some simple logic then Local Fields can be useful. They are usually a calculation on another field, like for example if you want to add a field for  membership status depending on field Age (Assuming you already have a field Age in your infoset, or Age is another calculated local field).

 

We want a field that will return values based on following logic:

 

If Age is less than 21, then return ‘Junior’.

If Age is between 21 and 65, then return ‘Adult’.

If Age is more than 65, then return ‘Senior’.

 

Go to menu item ‘Edit -> Local Field -> Create’

 

Field Label will be visible inside SQ01 query creation so we can say it is for SAP HR Person who will be creating or modifying the query, and Field Heading will be visible at the top of the field when the query output is displayed i.e. it is for end user.

 

You will find rest of the items on the above screen pretty self explanatory, click on ‘Complex Calculation’ (there is nothing complex here, do not worry).

 

Here is a screenshot on how to use the Complex Calculation screen:

 

If you want to add more conditions then play with + and – icons on the above screen. And, you are done with creating local field.

 

Report Assignment:

A very very interesting area that is mostly ignored and has a great potential for interactive reporting. To use this feature, go to menu item ‘Goto -> Report Assignment’.

Lets say we are developing a simple report in HR, that displays Personnal Number, First Name and Last Name. Your report lists a lot of record and you want the user to have power to double click on any employee row and then open up the details in PA20. Isn’t that fascinating?

 

Another example would be that when a user double click a query row, the data of that employee is passed to an ABAP Program and that triggers some interface or whatever is coded in that program.

 

Report Assignment is in fact making the reports interactive. SAP provides various options for that. It will take many pages to go through all of them, for the sake of understanding we will go through the simplest of them.

 

Goto menu item ‘Goto -> Report Assignment’.

 

Click on ‘Other report type’ and you will see the available options. Here are the actions that can be done when user double clicks the row:

 

Select ‘Transaction’, on next screen you will be asked to enter the TCODE.

 

 

Save the program, and run the report. And, double click on any person’s record and you will be brought to transaction PA20 with that person’s data populated on the screen. You can also choose to go to PA30 so that user can change the data quickly.

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11 Comments

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  1. Percy Carbella
    Hi Shafiq,
        I don’t know who turn to until I came across your blog.
        Here’s what I’m trying to achieve. We have defined custom subtype in infotype communiction. We would then want to make it appear in the same fashion as SYHR_A_P0105_AF_CELL.
        Could you help ? Thanks …
    (0) 
    1. Shafiq Rehman Post author
      Hi Percey,

      You need to create a custom field. Please see above in the blog on how to create a custom field, and you will need to put some code to pick the data from the IT0105 for your custom subtype. Your ABAPer can help you in that, I can give you starting code tips:

      re_provide_from_last P0105 ‘CUST’ PN-BEGDA PN-ENDDA.
      Then assign P0105-USRID or P0105-USRID_LONG to the custom field name that you created.

      Other option is to put Communication Subtype on Selection Screen and select only the subtype in which you are interested, but I do not recommend this approach, why?, I have discussed above that it may not give you all data and your reports may be wrong.

      (0) 
      1. Muhammad Harie Muhammad Amir Chow
        Hi again Shafiq,
            The other day I was using someone else’s PC, hence, different name. Apparently, none of my ABAPers, not even the senior ones, are used to SAP Query.
            However, I managed to get some codings, very much like what you provided above. Coding was done in Free Coding code section. Upon generating, I would get error No code exists for additional field ZSYHR_A_P0105_AF_XXXX.

            Thanks and regards

        (0) 
  2. Daniel Gaytan Rodriguez
    Hi, Good work in this blog, thanks a lot.

    I had a question, how i can add additional structure.

    And how can optimizer the custom fields, because, I added some, and the report is very slow to generate the information on screen, and the browser shown a time out error; this reports are of e-Recruiting (web).

    Thank you, good day.

    (0) 
  3. Jeanette Fireman
    Hi Shafiq,

    This is a very helpful blog, however, I have followed your instructions for ‘Report Assignment’ and selected PA20 for my transaction.  When I run my query and double click on a person’s record PA20 is launched but it is not populated with any data.

    Have I missed a step somewhere?

    Thanks for your help.

    Regards,
    Jeanette

    (0) 
    1. Shafiq Rehman Post author
      It should open up PA20 with that pernr selected, thats how I get it, just tested it today.

      Well if you hoping that it will open up an infotype, then it will not do it. You have to give the infotype number on PA20, but it will put the pernr on PA20 for you.

      (0) 
  4. Laurie Crow
    I realize that this blog has an emphasis on HR Module and my question is NOT HR related, but I cannot find anywhere else that addresses the SQ01 Report Assignment feature as clearly as this one.  My query is all about the material master.  One of my selection fields is the Material Number.  It is also on my output.  My Report Assignment to Tcode MM02 seems to only work if I have populated the Material Number field on the selection screen.  Is there a way to get it to work even if I am not using the Material Number field on the selection screen?
    Or can you point me to another blog or forum where I can learn more?
    (0) 
    1. Community User
      At a previous company I worked at, the Infoset that was set up in Ad Hoc query had the facility to report by the org structure  using the “Reporting set” . Does any one know how this is configured?

      I know that I can go to settings and  select by “Start by selction screen” But I want to be able to use the Reporting set function.

      (0) 
  5. raveesh saurabh
    Hi,

    I liked the blog a lot. Thanks for it.
    But I am facing a problem.

    I have created the Infoset and added some additional custom fields to it. But these additional custom fields are not available as selection criteria while creating the query.

    Can you please tell me how to use the custom fields as selection criteria?

    Thanks,

    Raveesh

    (0) 

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