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You have changed the kernel version of a dialog instance while the central instance is running and the work processes appear to start but shut down immediately.  Investigation of the dispatcher developer trace file (dev_disp in the work directory) reveals entries similar to the following:

*** ERROR => platform patchno is 1479 [dpxxdisp.c 12673]
*** ERROR => but my patchno is 2307 [dpxxdisp.c 12674]
*** DP_FATAL_ERROR => Release inconsistent with running system
*** DISPATCHER EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN ***

It is a little-known fact that you cannot change the kernel version of a dialog instance while the central instance is running.  For some reason the central instance registers the kernel patch level of each connected dialog instance on startup, and will not allow the version to change!

The solution is to only patch the kernel with the central instance down.  An interim solution (if you cannot, for reasons of system availability, shut down the central instance immediately) is to reinstate the original kernel of the dialog instance and run with this until you can restart the central instance.

This may seem obvious or not a real problem, but this issue is most often encountered when adding a new dialog instance to a running SAP system, which seems like an entirely feasible activity.  During the installation the kernel from the installation media (often quite out of date) is used and the system is started and thus connected to the central instance.  Now you cannot update the kernel until you can restart the whole system!  This issue is not in the installation guide or notes.

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