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Performance Tuning – an overlooked activity

Performace Tuning

In the world of SAP programming, ABAP is the universal language. Often due to the race against schedule and deliveries, focus of making efficient programs is overlooked. A performance optimized ABAP program saves the time of the end user, thus increasing the productivity of the user, and in turn keeping the user and the management happy .

1. Use of selection crieteria

     Instead of fetching all the data and then filtering unwanted data, filter out unwanted data during selection itself.

         Not Recommended:

Select * from zflight. Check : zflight-airln = ‘LF’ and zflight-fligh = ‘BW222’. Endselect.


Select f1 f2 f3 … fn from zflight into table itab_flight where airln = ‘LF’ and fligh = ‘222’.

2. Usage of Aggregate Functions.

     Use already provided aggregate functions instead of manually coding it in ABAP.

         Not Recommended

Maxnu = 0. Select * from zflight where airln = ‘LF’ and cntry = ‘IN’. Check zflight-fligh > maxnu. Maxnu = zflight-fligh. Endselect.


Select max( fligh ) from zflight into maxnu where airln = ‘LF’ and cntry = ‘IN’.

Similary use MIN, AVG,COUNT,and SUM as needed.

3. Usage of Views.

Instead of using multiple select statements or joins to fetch data from multiple tables, use views.

         Not recommended

Select * from zcntry where cntry like ‘IN%’. Select single * from zflight where cntry = zcntry-cntry and airln = ‘LF’.



Select * from zcnfl where cntry like ‘IN%’ and airln = ‘LF’. Endselect.

4. USe INTO clause instead of appending record by record during database selection.

5. Avoid appending corresponding fields of table during database selection

         Not Recommended

Refresh: itab_flight.

Select * from zflight into intab_flight.

Append intab_flight.

Clear intab_flight.



Refresh: intab_flight.

Select * from zflight into table intab_flight

6. Modifying lines of internal table

         Not Recommended

Loop at int_fligh.

If int_fligh-flag is initial.

Int_fligh-flag = ‘X’.


Modify int_fligh.



Int_fligh-flag = ‘X’.

Modify int_fligh transporting flag where flag is initial.

7. Read internal table with binary search

Read table makes use of sequential search which slows down the processing. Instead sort the internal table and then read with binary search.

         Not Recommended

Read table int_fligh with key airln = ‘LF’.


Read table int_fligh with key airln = ‘LF’ binary search.

8. Appending two internal tables

Instead of loop at one internal table and then append, use variation of APPEND statement.

         Not Recommended

Loop at int_fligh1.

Append int_fligh1 to int_fligh2.



Append lines of int_fligh1 to int_fligh2.

9. Table Buffering

Use buffered tables as far as possible however buffering is bypassed while using :

   Select distinct

   Select … for update

   Order by, group by, having clause


10. Usage of FOR ALL ENTRIES.

         Not Recommended

Loop at int_cntry.

Select single * from zfligh into int_fligh where cntry = int_cntry-cntry.

Append int_fligh.



if not int_cntry[] is initial.

Select * from zfligh appending table int_fligh For all entries in int_cntry Where cntry = int_cntry-cntry.


11. Usage of Table Indices.

While building the where clause take extra care to use the key fields in the order in which index is built so that it helps optimizer use the appropriate index while fetching data.

12. Usage of Joins

When multiple SAP tables are logically joined, it is always advisable to use inner join to read the data from them. This certainly reduces the load on the network.

However take precaution while volume of data is too much and too many tables are involved.

13. Usage of Nested Selects and Nested Loops

Avoid nested selects and nested loops. I.e as far as possible do not use SELECT within SELECT/ENDSELECt and LOOP inside LOOP ENDLOOP.

14. Sort functionalty Vs Order by

Use ABAP SORT instead of using ORDER BY during database selection.

Make use of Runtime Analyzer (SE30) and SQL Trace (ST05) as tools for performance analysis and make your programs an efficient one

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