Skip to Content
1     Introduction   Definition:   A hierarchy is a method of displaying a characteristic structured and grouped according to individual evaluation criteria.  Structure:  a) Nodes       A hierarchy is created from nodes. The uppermost node is the root.  b)  Roots      A hierarchy can have several roots. They do not have superior nodes.  c)  Hierarchy Levels       All nodes on the same level of the hierarchy (nodes that are the same distance away from the   root) form a hierarchy level. The roots of a hierarchy form level 1. The level of a node denotes the distance from the node to the root.  d) Leaves      The leaves of a hierarchy consist of characteristic values for the basic characteristic and therefore can also have entries in the fact table. A leaf cannot have any sub nodes.  e) Basic Characteristic      Hierarchies can be created only for those characteristics that do not reference other characteristics.  Properties : A BW hierarchy has the following properties:   •     Hierarchies are created for basic characteristics    •     Hierarchies are stored in special master data tables. They behave in a similar way to master data, •     and can therefore be used and modified in all Info Cubes.  •     You can define several hierarchies for a single characteristic.  •     A hierarchy can have a maximum of 98 levels.                  2     Uploading Hierarchy From Flat File In the following example , Hierarchy is based on info object ‘Sales Representative’. In addition characteristics ‘Region’ and ‘Country’ are included in the hierarchy. Basic characteristic in this hierarchy is ‘Sales Representative’ and External characteristics are ‘Region’ and ‘Country’.  image     2.1     Create Info-objects   a) Create 3 info objects ‘Sales Region’ (ZSREGION), ‘Sales Country’ (ZSCONTRY)and ‘Sales Representative’ (ZSREP).  b) For ‘Sales Representative’ characteristic Tick the check box With Hierarchies and select Hierarchy not time-dependent radio button.  image   c) Include the external characteristics ‘Sales Region’ and ‘Sales Country ‘ in the Hierarchy.     And activate the info object ‘Sales Representative’.   image   2.2     Creating Info Source.  a) Create Info source with direct update for info object ‘Sales Representative’ (ZSREP). image     b) Assign flat file source system to the info source ZSREP.   c) Activate the transfer Rules . image  d) Click on Hier. Structure Push button image   e) Give a Name and description to the Hierarchy and press continue . image  f) The structure in the screen represents the structure of the flat file . Field sequence of the flat file should be exactly same as that in the screen below. image  2.3     Creating Flat File for Upload  a) Number the nodes in the hierarchy. image  b)Create the flat file based on above hierarchy structure and the node numbers. image  2.4   Uploading the Hierarchy Data into BW  a)     Create Info Package for Hierarchy Upload. Select the Hierarchy to be uploaded and also the Full Update button as we are uploading the entire Hierarchy. b)     There  are three update methods for uploading the hierarchy. Full Update : For Uploading the entire hierarchy structure Insert Subtree: For appending the hierarchy with new nodes. Update Subtree : For modifying the nodes of the hierarchy.  image c) Select the CSV file to be uploaded and schedule the upload.  d) Display the loaded Hierarchy .  image 2.5     Uploading Time Dependent Hierarchy   a)     For making the hierarchy time dependent select the ‘Time-Dependent Hierarchy structure’ radio button and activate the info object ZSREP image b) In the transfer structure there will be 2 more additional fields date from and date to for the time dependent nodes.  image  c) Consider that Sales Representative ‘SREP2’ was in England up to 31/12/1995 and moved to USA from 01/01/1996 .  image  d)     Flat file structure for the above hierarchy is shown below . It contains two extra columns Date-to and Date-from. image   e) In the info-package  Update tab , select Fixed Time interval radio button and give start date as 01/01/1000 and End date as 31/12/9999 so that all nodes  are uploaded.  image  f)     Upload the hierarchy data from flat-file to BW. image   g)     Display the loaded hierarchy. image
To report this post you need to login first.


You must be Logged on to comment or reply to a post.

  1. Former Member

    This topic has often been discussed in many forums and there is nothing new in this weblog. I think there should a minimal standard for any content to be qualified as a blog. If such “basic” things were to be qualified as blog then we would see many more blogs ranging from “creating info-objects” to “creating cubes”, etc… I hope the Weblog moderators take some action on this trend.

    Let me make it clear I intend no harm to Prakash’s contribution. I am just worried at the quality and the trend of such weblogs.


    1. Harry Singh
      hey Prakash has done gud job, There are beginners also who need such blogs so you should not comment like this every small thing is new to them so it was harsh that you said and yes it was informative . So what if there are blogs for creating cube or info objects.
  2. Former Member
    Hi, Prakash

    Nice web log.

    I found this web log very useful as you have explained nicely (with step step by instructions)about how to create a Hierarchy and load it.

    I think BW is very vast and what seems to be trivial for some,  could be  very difficult for others to grasp. Hence I always welcome these type of weblogs.

    Velayutham Augustheesan

  3. Former Member
    Hi, Prakash,

    Very nice web log.

    Even though it may be considered a basic topic to some, your detailed step by step instructions may save others precious time.

    It was very useful to me!

    Best regards,

    André Garcia

  4. Former Member
    The document is very good.
    I would like to know the pros and cons of maintaining hierarchy in source system and in BI system.
    how do we decide if the hierarchy should be maintained in R/3 or in Bi system ?

    Can you please provide your feedback /views.
    my email is

  5. Former Member

    Would you by any chance have instructions on uploading hierarchies where a node can have multiple parent nodes? The idea is to ‘Link’ the duplicate nodes to the parent node.


  6. Former Member
    This is a very useful blog. I liked the way you presented the blog, very simple and clear.

    Any one who is starting their career in BW need to check this out….

  7. Former Member
    Thanks for this clear illustration, Prakash. Your example, however, shows a problem with the upload, that various people have meantioned on SDN, but which no-one has proposed a solution for. The upload fails to upload the texts for the hierarchy nodes, as can be seen in your hierarchy displays.

    If you find a solution to this problem, please add it to your blog.


Leave a Reply